Age and androgen-deprivation therapy on exercise outcomes in men with prostate cancer
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The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of age (≤65 years or >65 years) and androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT, presence or absence) as factors that may predict changes in body composition and fitness following a 24-week exercise program in prostate cancer patients.
One hundred twenty-one men were randomly allocated to either: (1) aerobic exercise (AE), (2) resistance exercise (RE), or (3) usual care (UC). Body composition was assessed by DXA. Aerobic fitness was assessed through a maximal treadmill test. Muscular strength was assessed by leg extension and bench press using the eight-repetition maximum test. Responses were compared between younger (≤65 years) and older (>65 years) patients with or without ADT.
There did not appear to be an interaction between age and ADT on body composition or fitness, nor were there any significant changes in body composition for participants ≤65 years. In participants aged >65 years, lean mass decreased in AE (p = 0.013) and UC (p = 0.006), but was preserved in RE. In participants receiving ADT, there was a decrease in lean mass in AE (p = 0.003) and UC (p < 0.001) but not in RE. The non-ADT group did not show any changes in body composition but did show improvements in muscular fitness following resistance training (p < 0.001).
Changes in body composition and physical fitness following a 24-week exercise program in men with prostate cancer are not influenced by age and/or ADT. Resistance training appears to attenuate the age-related decrease in lean mass and increase in body fat in older patients with prostate cancer and those receiving ADT.
KeywordsAerobic exercise training Resistance exercise training Cardiorespiratory fitness Muscular strength Body composition
We are grateful to the PREVeNT study participants, to all those who contributed to the PREVeNT study, and to the Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre for their contributions to study coordination, exercise training, and evaluation of study participants. Ms. Angela S. Alberga holds a Doctoral Student Research Award from the Canadian Diabetes Association. Dr. Ronald J. Sigal is supported by a Health Senior Scholar award from the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research. Dr. Glen P. Kenny was supported by a Career Scientist Award from the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Term Care and a University Research Chair.
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