Cancer-associated hypercalcemia treated with intravenous diphosphonates: a survival and prognostic factor analysis
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Cancer-associated hypercalcemia (CAH) is the most frequent metabolic disorder in cancer patients. We retrospectively reviewed the outcome and prognostic factors for patients with CAH being treated with standard intravenous disphosphonates.
Materials and methods
Two hundred sixty patients were reviewed. Overall survival and prognostic factors were analyzed. Relative risks (RR) for early death (within 60 days) were assessed (Fischer exact test and logistic regression model).
Median survival was 64 days (range, 12–1,955+). Multivariate analysis identified the following factors as poor survival predictors: serum corrected calcium >2.83 mmol/l [hazard ratio (HR) = HR 2.21], albuminemia <35.5 (HR 2.41), squamous cell carcinoma (HR 2.64), bone metastasis (HR 1.44), and liver metastasis (HR 2..22). One hundred twenty-one patients died within 60 days. For those patients, the logistic regression model identified four independent predicting factors for early death: calcemia >2.83 mmol/l (RR 5.07), hypoalbuminemia (RR 7.42), liver metastasis (RR 4.34), and squamous cell carcinomas (RR 2.21).
Despite intravenous diphosphonate, CAH is still associated with poor outcome. Simple bedside parameters may estimate the risk of early deaths.
KeywordsCancer Diphosphonates Hypercalcemia Supportive care Prognosis
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