Advertisement

Wiener klinische Wochenschrift

, Volume 125, Issue 9–10, pp 261–269 | Cite as

Socio-economic determinants of health behaviours across age groups: results of a cross-sectional survey

  • T. E. Dorner
  • W. J. Stronegger
  • K. Hoffmann
  • K. Viktoria Stein
  • T. Niederkrotenthaler
original article

Summary

Background

The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of different socio-economic variables on the lifestyle factors, like lack of physical activity, diet rich in meat, and smoking, across sex and age groups in the general Austrian population to formulate more targeted public health measures.

Methods

The Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006–07 contains data of 15,474 people, representative for the general population. Statistical analyses included linear and logistic regression models.

Results

Lack of physical activity was more prevalent in women, while unhealthy nutrition and daily smoking were more prevalent in men. Overall, profession was the strongest predictor for health behaviour in men, while the educational level played the most significant role in women. Subjects in higher age groups had a more healthy nutrition and were less likely to smoke, but had a higher chance for lack of physical activity.

Discussion

Socio-economic factors predict lifestyle choices differently in different age groups. For example, in men, the highest percentage of daily smokers was found in the middle age, while the youngest age group was the one that smoked the most in women. Furthermore, the educational level had a reverse effect on women in the oldest age group, where those with tertiary education smoked three times more than those with less education. Our results emphasise the importance of taking a holistic approach towards health, including educational, cultural and age-specific policies to improve the overall health status and health equality of a population.

Keywords

Age-related health behaviour Socio-economic health indicators Socio-demographic health indicators Lifestyle choices Risk factors 

Sozio-ökonomische Determinanten des Gesundheitsverhaltens in verschiedenen Altersgruppen. Ergebnisse einer Querschnittserhebung

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Ziel dieser Studie war es, den Einfluss verschiedener sozio-ökonomischer Determinanten auf die Lebensstilfaktoren ‚fehlende körperliche Bewegung‘, ‚fleisch-reiche Ernährung‘, und ‚Rauchen‘ nach Geschlecht und in verschiedenen Altersgruppen zu analysieren, um gezieltere Public Health Maßnahmen zu formulieren.

Methoden

Der Austrian Health Interview Survey 2006–07 beinhaltet Daten von 15.474 Personen, und ist für die österreichische Bevölkerung repräsentativ. Statistische Auswertungen beinhalteten lineare und logistische Regressionsanalysen.

Ergebnisse

Frauen wiesen öfter mangelnde körperliche Bewegung auf, während bei Männern eine ungesunde Ernährung und Rauchen häufiger vorkamen. Der Beruf war der stärkte Prädiktor bei Männern, während bei Frauen die Bildung den größten Einfluss hatte. Personen in den höheren Altersgruppen hatten eine gesündere Ernährung und rauchten weniger, hatten aber auch eine größere Wahrscheinlichkeit für fehlende körperliche Bewegung.

Diskussion

Sozio-ökonomische Determinanten haben unterschiedliche Auswirkungen auf Lebensstilfragen in unterschiedlichen Altersgruppen. Zum Beispiel fanden sich die meisten täglichen Raucher bei Männern in der mittleren Altersgruppe, während es bei den Frauen die jüngste Altersgruppe war, die am meisten rauchte. Außerdem hat Bildung einen umgekehrten Effekt bei Frauen, wo solche mit tertiärer Bildung dreimal mehr rauchten als jene mit weniger Bildung. Unsere Ergebnisse betonen, wie wichtig es ist, einen ganzheitlichen Zugang zu Gesundheit zu haben, welcher bildungspolitische, kulturelle und altersspezifische Maßnahmen umfasst, um einen einheitlichen und gerechten Gesundheitszustand in der Bevölkerung zu erreichen.

Schlüsselwörter

Alters-abhängiges Gesundheitsverhalten Sozio-ökonomische Gesundheitsindikatoren Sozio-demographische Gesundheitsindikatoren Wahl des Lebensstils Risikofaktoren 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Marmot M. The status syndrome. How social standing affects our health and longevity. London: Bloomsbury Plc; 2004.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Kim HJ, Ruger JP. Socioeconomic disparities in behavioural risk factors and health outcomes by gender in the Republic of Korea. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:195.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kaplan GA, Keil JE. Socioeconomic factors and cardiovascular disease: a review of the literature. Circulation. 1993;88:1973–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rogers RG, Everett BG, Onge JM, Krueger PM. Social, behavioural, and biological factors, and sex differences in mortality. Demography. 2010;47:555–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wilkinson RG, Pickett KE. Income inequality and population health: a review and explanation of the evidence. Soc Sci Med. 2006;62:1768–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stronegger WJ, Freidl W, Rásky E. Health behaviour and risk behaviour: socio-economic differences in an Austrian rural county. Soc Sci Med. 1997;44:423–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kjøllesdal MR, Holmboe-Ottesen G, Mosdøl A, Wandel M. The relative importance of socio-economic indicators in explaining differences in BMI and waist: hip ratio, and the mediating effect of work control, dietary patterns and physical activity. Br J Nutr. 2010;104:1230–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Buckland G, Salas-Salvadó J, Roure E, Bulló M, Serra-Majem L. Socio-demographic risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome in a Mediterranean population. Public Health Nutr. 2008;11:1372–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Paek KW, Chun KH, Jin KN, Lee KS. Do health behaviours moderate the effect of socioeconomic status on metabolic syndrome? Ann Epidemiol. 2006;16:756–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shahar D, Shai I, Vardi H, Shahar A, Fraser D. Diet and eating habits in high and low socioeconomic groups. Nutrition. 2005;21:559–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ball K, Mishra GD, Crawford D. Social factors and obesity: an investigation of the role of health behaviours. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2003;27:394–403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Khaw KT, Wareham N, Bingham S, Welch A, Luben R, Day N. Combined impact of health behaviours and mortality in men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective population study. PLoS Med. 2008;5:e 12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kim S, Symons M, Popkin BM. Contrasting socioeconomic profiles related to healthier lifestyles in China and the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 2004;159:184–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Lohff B, Rieder A. Gender medicine. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2004;154:391–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dorner T, Kiefer I, Kunze M, Rieder A. Gender aspects of socioeconomic and psychosocial risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2004;154:426–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Deeks A, Lombard C, Michelmore J, Teede H. The effects of gender and age on health related behaviours. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Petersson U, Ostgren CJ, Brudin L, Ovhed I, Nilsson PM. Predictors of successful, self-reported lifestyle changes in a defined middle-aged population: the Soderakra Cardiovascular Risk Factor Study, Sweden. Scand J Public Health. 2008;36:389–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Statistik Austria, editor. Im Auftrag von Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, Familie und Jugend. Österreichische Gesundheitsbefragung 2006/07. Hauptergebnisse und methodische Dokumentation. Vienna: Statistics Austria; 2007.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Aromaa A, Koponen P, Tafforeau J, Vermeire C, HIS/HES Core Group. Evaluation of health interview surveys and health examination surveys in the European Union. Eur J Public Health. 2003;13(3 Suppl):67-72.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Freidl W, Fazekas C, Raml R, Pretis M, Feistritzer G. Perceived social justice, long-term unemployment and health. A survey among marginalised groups in Austria. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007;42:547–53.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Freidl W. The impact of anomia as a factor in a demand resource model of health. Soc Sci Med. 1997;44:1357–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stein KV, Rieder A, Dorner TE. East-West gradient in cardio-vascular mortality in Austria: how much can we explain by following the pattern of risk factors? Int J Health Geogr. 2011;10:59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Koivusilta L, Rimpelä A, Vikat A. Health behaviours and health in adolescence as predictors of educational level in adulthood: a follow-up study from Finland. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57:577–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Molloy GJ, Stamatakis E, Randall G, Hamer M. Marital status, gender and cardiovascular mortality: behavioural, psychological distress and metabolic explanations. Soc Sci Med. 2009;69:223–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Reijneveld SA. Reported health, lifestyles, and use of health care of first generation immigrants in the Netherlands: do socioeconomic factors explain their adverse position? J Epidemiol Community Health. 1998;52:298–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lindström M, Sundquist J. Immigration and leisure-time physical inactivity: a population-based study. Ethn Health. 2001;6:77–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marques-Vidal P, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Paccaud F. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among migrants in Switzerland: association with country of origin. Public Health Nutr. 2007;14:1148–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nicolaou M, Doak CM, van Dam RM, Brug J, Stronks K, Seidell JC. Cultural and social influences on food consumption in Dutch residents of Turkish and Moroccan origin: a qualitative study. J Nutr Educ Behav. 2009;41:232–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    van Oort FV, van der Ende J, Crijnen AA, Verhulst FC, Mackenbach JP, Joung IM. Determinants of daily smoking in Turkish young adults in the Netherlands. BMC Public Health. 2006;6:294.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Dorner T, Fodor JG, Lawrence K, Ludvik B, Rieder A. HDL-knowledge in the lay public: results of a representative population survey. Atherosclerosis. 2007;195:195–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Mosca L, Mochari H, Christian A, et al. National study of women’s awareness, preventive action, and barriers to cardiovascular health. Circulation. 2006;113:525–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dallongeville J, Marécaux N, Cottel D, Bingham A, Amouyel P. Association between nutrition knowledge and nutritional intake in middle-aged men from Northern France. Public Health Nutr. 2001;4:27–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shepherd J. International comparison of awareness and attitudes towards coronary risk factor reduction: the HELP study. Heart European leaders panel. Atherosclerosis. 1997;137(Suppl):117-23.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Harper S, Lynch J, Smith GD. Social determinants and the decline of Cardiovascular diseases: Understanding the links. Annu Rev Public Health. 2011;32:39–69.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dorner T, Fodor JG, Allichhammer D, et al. “A heart for Vienna”—the prevention program for the big city. Blue-collar workers as a special target group. Wien Med Wochenschr. 2006;156:552–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Wennerholm C, Grip B, Johansson A, Nilsson H, Honkasalo ML, Faresjö T. Cardiovascular disease occurrence in two close but different social environments. Int J Health Geogr. 2011;10:5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Freyer-Adam J, Gaertner B, Tobschall S, John U. Health risk factors and self-rated health among job-seekers. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:659.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. E. Dorner
    • 1
  • W. J. Stronegger
    • 2
  • K. Hoffmann
    • 3
  • K. Viktoria Stein
    • 1
  • T. Niederkrotenthaler
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Social Medicine, Center for Public HealthMedical University ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Institute of Social Medicine and EpidemiologyMedical University GrazGrazAustria
  3. 3.Division of General and Family MedicineCenter for Public Health Medical University ViennaViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations