A multi-start ILS–RVND algorithm with adaptive solution acceptance for the CVRP

  • Osman GokalpEmail author
  • Aybars Ugur
Methodologies and Application


This study proposes a novel hybrid algorithm based on Iterated Local Search (ILS) and Random Variable Neighborhood Descent (RVND) metaheuristics for the purpose of solving the Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem (CVRP). The main contribution of this work is that two new search rules have been developed for multi-starting and adaptive acceptance strategies, and applied together to enhance the power of the algorithm. A comprehensive experimental work has been conducted on two common CVRP benchmarks. Computational results demonstrate that both multi-start and adaptive acceptance strategies provide a significant improvement on the performance of pure ILS–RVND hybrid. Experimental work also shows that our algorithm is highly effective in solving CVRP and comparable with the state of the art.


Capacitated vehicle routing problem Iterated local search Random variable neighborhood descent Adaptive acceptance function Multi-start Hybrid metaheuristic 



Author Osman Gokalp acknowledges the support of Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) 2211 National Graduate Scholarship Program.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer EngineeringEge UniversityBornova, IzmirTurkey

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