A hybrid priority-based genetic algorithm for simultaneous pickup and delivery problems in reverse logistics with time windows and multiple decision-makers

  • Yanfang Ma
  • Zongmin Li
  • Fang Yan
  • Cuiying Feng
Methodologies and Application


This article puts forward a hybrid priority-based nested genetic algorithm with fuzzy logic controller and fuzzy random simulation (hpn-GA with FLC–FRS) for solving a variant of the vehicle routing problem. To meet all the complex restrictions contained in practical reverse logistics, a new mathematical model is developed for simultaneous pickup and delivery problems with time windows and multiple decision-makers (SPDTW–MDM). Then, a hpn-GA with FLC–FRS is proposed, where the priority-based initializing method makes the initializing more applicable, a nested procedure structure handles multiple decision-makers, a fuzzy logic controller helps adjust the mutation rate, and a fuzzy random simulation is used to deal with uncertainties. Finally, in the case study, GA parameters are tuned by Taguchi method and result analyses are presented to highlight the performance of the optimization method for the SPDTW–MDM, while algorithm comparisons by instance applications in different scales show its efficiency and effectiveness.


Vehicle routing problem Simultaneous pickup and delivery Reverse logistics Genetic algorithm Fuzzy random variable 



This research was supported by Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 71640013, 71601134, 71401020, and 71702167) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2018T110609).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors certify that there is no conflict of interest with any individual/organization for the present work.

Human participants

This paper does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yanfang Ma
    • 1
  • Zongmin Li
    • 2
  • Fang Yan
    • 3
  • Cuiying Feng
    • 4
  1. 1.School of Economics and ManagementHebei University of TechnologyTianjinPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Business SchoolSichuan UniversityChengduPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.School of Economics and ManagementChongqing Jiaotong UniversityChongqingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.College of Economics and ManagementZhejiang University of TechnologyHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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