Soft Computing

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 227–239 | Cite as

Epileptic seizures detection in EEGs blending frequency domain with information gain technique

  • Hadi Ratham Al GhayabEmail author
  • Yan Li
  • Siuly Siuly
  • Shahab Abdulla
Methodologies and Application


This paper proposes a new algorithm which combines the information in frequency domain with the Information Gain (InfoGain) technique for the detection of epileptic seizures from electroencephalogram (EEG) data. The proposed method consists of four main steps. Firstly, in order to investigate which method is most suitable to decompose the EEG signals into frequency bands, we implement separately a fast Fourier transform (FFT) or discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Secondly, each band is partitioned into k windows and a set of statistical features are extracted from each window. Thirdly, the InfoGain is used to rank the extracted features and the most important ones are selected. Lastly, these features are forwarded to a least square support vector machine (LS-SVM) classifier to classify the EEG. This scheme is implemented and tested on a benchmark EEG database and also compared with other existing methods, based on some performance evaluation measures. The experimental results show that the proposed FFT combined with InfoGain method can generate better performance than the DWT method. This method achieves 100% accuracy for five different pairs: healthy people with eyes open (z) versus epileptic patients with activity seizures (s); healthy people with eyes closed (o) versus s; epileptic patients with free seizures (n) versus s; patients with free seizures epileptic (f) versus s; and z versus o. The accuracies obtained for two other pairs, (o vs. n) and (z vs. f), are 95.62 and 88.32%, respectively. These two pairs have more similarities with each other, leading to a lower level of accuracy. The proposed approach outperforms six other reported methods and achieves an 11.9% improvement. Finally, it can be concluded that the proposed FFT combined with InfoGain method has the capacity to detect epileptic seizures in EEG most effectively.


Electroencephalogram Epileptic seizures Frequency domain Information gain technique Least square support vector machine 



The first author acknowledges the Iraqi government (Ministry of Higher Education and scientific research) for providing PhD scholarship.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hadi Ratham Al Ghayab
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yan Li
    • 1
  • Siuly Siuly
    • 3
  • Shahab Abdulla
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Health, Engineering and SciencesUniversity of Southern QueenslandToowoombaAustralia
  2. 2.Collage of Computer Sciences and MathematicsUniversity of Thi-QarNasiriyahIraq
  3. 3.Centre for Applied Informatics, College of Engineering and ScienceVictoria UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  4. 4.Open Access CollegeUniversity of Southern QueenslandToowoombaAustralia

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