Soft Computing

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 269–283 | Cite as

Reduction in ping-pong effect in heterogeneous networks using fuzzy logic

  • Bushra Naeem
  • Razali Ngah
  • Siti Z. Mohd Hashim
Methodologies and Application


Heterogeneous networks enable mobile users to stay connected anytime and from anywhere, providing a platform for multiple radio technologies to cooperate in order to furnish network subscribers with seamless connectivity. Excess number of wireless access points in a heterogeneous network results in exposing the mobile users to a number of networks at a time. The cell boundaries are critical where the quality of service may suffer. These boundaries share signal reception from multiple cells, and this causes mobile terminals to connect back and forth between multiple cells. This is known as the ping-pong effect that leads to a greater number of call drops. This work presents a fuzzy handover decision system that uses mobile user traversal history to mitigate the ping-pong effect. The proposed parameter is fed into fuzzy decision system to quantify the decision parameters. The technique increased the value of handover success metric, compared to Monte Carlo method from 0.3 to 0.6.


Ping-pong effect Heterogeneous networks Vertical handovers Fuzzy system 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare they have no conflict of interests


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Balochistan University of Information Technology, Engineering and Management SciencesQuettaPakistan
  2. 2.Wireless Communication Centre, Faculty of Electrical EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia
  3. 3.UTM Big Data Centre, Faculty of ComputingUniversiti Teknologi MalaysiaSkudaiMalaysia

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