# Local, global and decentralized fuzzy-based computing paradigms for coordinated voltage control of grid-connected photovoltaic systems

- 62 Downloads

## Abstract

The high penetration of grid-connected PV systems in conventional electrical grids may cause serious technical limitations, which could hinder the pervasion of these systems. In this domain, the decreasing of the power quality levels due to voltage perturbation represents one of the main issues to address. In order to tackle this problem, the application of Fuzzy logic-based voltage control at the point of common coupling is considered as one of the most promising research direction. Although, various computing paradigms based on both local and global information processing could be deployed to address this issue, the selection of the most effective solution, which depends on the available communication facilities and the required control accuracy, is still an open problem requiring further investigations. In trying to solve this problem, in this paper the main features, the expected performances, and the technological requirements of both local and global fuzzy-based computing paradigms for coordinate voltage control are analyzed. Detailed simulation results obtained on a realistic case study are presented and discussed in order to validate the presented argumentations.

## Keywords

Fuzzy-based voltage control Photovoltaic systems Smart grids Decentralized control## Notes

### Compliance with ethical standards

### Conflict of interest

Alfredo Vaccaro, Hafsa Qamar, and Haleema Qamar declare that they have no conflict of interest.

### Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

## References

- Azzouz MA, Farag HE, El-Saadany EF (2014) Real-time fuzzy voltage regulation for distribution networks incorporating high penetration of renewable sources, In IEEE Systems JournalGoogle Scholar
- Baran M, Wu FF (1989a) Optimal sizing of capacitors placed on a radial distribution system. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 4:735–743CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Baran ME, Wu FF (1989b) Optimal capacitor placement on radial distribution systems. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 4:725–734CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Caldon R, Coppo M, Turri R (2014) Distributed voltage control strategy for LV networks with inverter-interfaced generators. Electric Power Syst Res 107:85–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Castaldo D, Gallo D, Landi C (2004)Collaborative multisensor network architecture based on smart Web sensors for power quality applications. In: Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference, 2004. IMTC 04. Proceedings of the 21st IEEE, 1361–1366. IEEEGoogle Scholar
- Cossent R, Gómez T, Olmos L (2011) Large-scale integration of renewable and distributed generation of electricity in Spain: current situation and future needs. Energy Policy 39:8078–8087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Delfanti M, Falabretti D, Merlo M, Silvestri A (2009) Impatto della generazione diffusa sulle reti di distribuzione. In: Proceedings of AEIT National ConferenceGoogle Scholar
- Demirok E, Gonzalez PC, Frederiksen KH, Sera D, Rodriguez P, Teodorescu R (2011a) Local reactive power control methods for overvoltage prevention of distributed solar inverters in low-voltage grids. IEEE J Photovolt 1:174–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Demirok E, Sera D, Rodriguez P, (2011b)Teodorescu R Enhanced local grid voltage support method for high penetration of distributed generators. In: IECON 2011-37th Annual Conference on IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pp 2481–2485Google Scholar
- Dounis AI, Bruant M, Santamouris M, Guarracino G, Michel P (1996) Comparison of conventional and fuzzy control of indoor air quality in buildings. J Intell Fuzzy Syst 4:131–140Google Scholar
- Fallahzadeh-Abarghouei H, Nayeripour M, Waffenschmidt E, Hasanvand S (2016) A new decentralized voltage control method of smart grid via distributed generations. In: Energy and Sustainability Conference (IESC), 2016 International. pp 1–6Google Scholar
- Gupta N, Garg R, Kumar P (2015a) Asymmetrical fuzzy logic control to PV module connected micro-grid. In: India Conference (INDICON), 2015 Annual IEEE, pp 1–6Google Scholar
- Gupta N, Garg R, Kumar P (2015b) Asymmetrical Fuzzy logic control to PV Module Connected micro-grid. In: 2015 Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON). pp 1–6Google Scholar
- Gupta S, Garg R, Singh A (2015c) TS-fuzzy based controller for grid connected PV system. In: 2015 Annual IEEE India Conference (INDICON). pp 1–6Google Scholar
- Higgins N, Vyatkin V, Nair N, Schwarz K (2008) Concept of intelligent decentralised power distribution automation with IEC 61850, IEC 61499 and Holonic Control. In: Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Systems, Machine and CyberneticsGoogle Scholar
- Hojo M, Hatano H, Fuwa Y (2009) Voltage rise suppression by reactive power control with cooperating photovoltaic generation systems. In: Electricity Distribution-Part 1, 2009. CIRED 2009. 20th International Conference and Exhibition on, IET, pp 1–4Google Scholar
- Izume A, Hojo M, Ohnishi T, Taki S, Oishi K, Fujiwara N (2006) Suppression method of voltage rise by reactive power compensation of many utility interactive inverters for photovoltaic generation system. In: The Papers of Joint Technical Meeting on Power Engineering and Power Systems Engineering, IEE Japan, PE-06-103/PSE-06-103. pp 35–40Google Scholar
- Karimi M, Mokhlis H, Naidu K, Uddin S, Bakar A (2016) Photovoltaic penetration issues and impacts in distribution network-a review. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 53:594–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kenneth AP, Folly K (2014) Voltage rise issue with high penetration of grid connected PV. IFAC Proceedings Volumes 47:4959–4966Google Scholar
- Kondoh J, Aki H, Yamaguchi H, Murata A, Ishii I (2006) Voltage regulation in distribution systems by hierarchically cooperative control. IEEE J Trans Power Energy 126:994–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Limouchi E, Taher SA, Ganji B (2016) Active generators power dispatching control in smart grid. In: Electrical Power Distribution Networks Conference (EPDC), 2016 21st Conference on, 2016. pp 26–32Google Scholar
- Liu Y, Bebic J, Kroposki B, De Bedout J, Ren W (2008)Distribution system voltage performance analysis for high-penetration PV. In: Energy 2030 Conference, ENERGY 2008. pp 1–8Google Scholar
- Loia V, Tomasiello S, Vaccaro A (2017) Using fuzzy transform in multi-agent based monitoring of smart grids. Inf Sci 388:209–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Loia V, Vaccaro A (2011) A decentralized architecture for voltage regulation in Smart Grids. In: 2011 IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Electronics. pp 1679–1684Google Scholar
- Loia V, Vaccaro A, Vaisakh K (2013) A self-organizing architecture based on cooperative fuzzy agents for smart grid voltage control. IEEE Trans Ind Inf 9:1415–1422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Martí P, Velasco M, Fuertes JM, Camacho A, Miret J, Castilla M (2013) Distributed reactive power control methods to avoid voltage rise in grid-connected photovoltaic power generation systems. In: Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2013 IEEE International Symposium on. pp 1–6Google Scholar
- Masters C (2002) Voltage rise: the big issue when connecting embedded generation to long 11 kV overhead lines. Power Eng J 16:5–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Molina-Garcia A, Mastromauro R, Garcia-Sanchez T, Pugliese S, Liserre M, Stasi S (2016) Reactive power flow control for pv inverters voltage support in LV distribution networks IEEE transactions on smart gridGoogle Scholar
- Molina-García Á, Mastromauro RA, García-Sánchez T, Pugliese S, Liserre M, Stasi S (2017) Reactive power flow control for pv inverters voltage support in LV distribution networks. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 8:447–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Perera BK, Ciufo P, Perera S (2013) Point of common coupling (PCC) voltage control of a grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) system. In: Industrial Electronics Society, IECON 2013-39th Annual Conference of the IEEE. pp 7475–7480Google Scholar
- Raju L, Milton R, Mahadevan S (2016) Multi agent systems based distributed control and automation of micro-grid using MACSimJX. In: Intelligent Systems and Control (ISCO), 2016 10th International Conference on. pp 1–6Google Scholar
- Shalwala R, Bleijs J (2010) Voltage control scheme using Fuzzy Logic for residential area networks with PV generators in Saudi Arabia. In: Power Electronics, Drives and Energy Systems (PEDES) and 2010 Power India, 2010 Joint International Conference on. pp 1–6Google Scholar
- Spatti DH, da Silva IN, Usida WF, Flauzino RA (2010) Real-time voltage regulation in power distribution system using fuzzy control. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 25:1112–1123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stetz T, Marten F, Braun M (2013) Improved low voltage grid-integration of photovoltaic systems in Germany. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 4:534–542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stetz T, Yan W, Braun M (2010) Voltage control in distribution systems with high level PV-penetration. In: 25th European PV solar energy conference and exhibition. ValenciaGoogle Scholar
- Tanaka K, Oshiro M, Toma S, Yona A, Senjyu T, Funabashi T, Kim C-H (2010) Decentralised control of voltage in distribution systems by distributed generators. IET Gener, Trans Distrib 4:1251–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Toma S, Senjyu T, Miyazato Y, Yona A, Funabashi T, Saber AY, Kim C-H (2008) Optimal coordinated voltage control in distribution system. In: Power and Energy Society General Meeting-Conversion and Delivery of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, IEEE. pp 1–7Google Scholar
- TOMURA K (2007) Centralized voltage control method using distributed generators calculated by optimal power flow. In: The papers of technical meeting on power system engineering. pp 61–66Google Scholar
- Tomura K, Tsuji T, Oyama T, Fujiura H, Goda T (2007) Centralized voltage control method using distributed generators calculated by optimal power flow. In: The Papers of Technical Meeting on Power System Engineering, PSE-07-138. pp 61–66Google Scholar
- Tonkoski R, Lopes LA, El-Fouly TH (2011) Coordinated active power curtailment of grid connected PV inverters for overvoltage prevention. IEEE Trans Sustain Energy 2:139–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Tsuji T, Oyama T, Goda T, Ikeda K, Tange S (2007) A study of autonomous decentralized voltage profile control considering communication time. In: joint Technical Meeting on Power Engineering and Power Systems Engineering, Electrical Engineering in Japan, PE-07–122/PSE-07–137. pp 55–60Google Scholar
- Turitsyn K, Sulc P, Backhaus S, Chertkov M (2010a) Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators. In: Smart Grid Communications (SmartGridComm), 2010 First IEEE International Conference on IEEE. pp 79–84Google Scholar
- Turitsyn K, Šulc P, Backhaus S, Chertkov M (2010b) Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration. In: IEEE PES general meeting. pp 1–6Google Scholar
- Vaccaro A, Popov M, Villacci D, Terzija V (2011a) An integrated framework for smart microgrids modeling, monitoring, control, communication, and verification. In: Proceedings of the IEEE. 99 pp 119–132Google Scholar
- Vaccaro A, Velotto G, Zobaa AF (2011b) A decentralized and cooperative architecture for optimal voltage regulation in smart grids. IEEE Trans Ind Electron 58:4593–4602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Varma RK, Rangarajan SS, Axente I, Sharma V (2011) Novel application of a PV solar plant as STATCOM during night and day in a distribution utility network. In: Power Systems Conference and Exposition (PSCE), IEEE/PES, 2011. pp 1–8Google Scholar
- Vovos PN, Kiprakis AE, Wallace AR, Harrison GP (2007) Centralized and distributed voltage control: Impact on distributed generation penetration. IEEE Trans Power Syst 22:476–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Walling R, Saint R, Dugan RC, Burke J, Kojovic LA (2008) Summary of distributed resources impact on power delivery systems. IEEE Trans Power Deliv 23:1636–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang W, Liu W, Wang X, Liu L, Ferrese F (2014) Distributed multiple agent system based online optimal reactive power control for smart grids. IEEE Trans Smart Grid 5:2421–2431CrossRefGoogle Scholar