Soft Computing

, Volume 23, Issue 4, pp 1199–1218 | Cite as

Distributed task allocation in multi-agent environments using cellular learning automata

  • Maryam KhaniEmail author
  • Ali Ahmadi
  • Hajar Hajary
Methodologies and Application


People’s safety is threatened by the repetition of critical events. Many people lose their lives due to unprofessional rescue operation as well as time pressure of the rescue operation. A key problem in urban search and rescue teams, considering the severe turbulence and complexity of the environments which are hit by a crisis, is the coordination between the team members. In order to solve this problem, an effective plan would be the provision of measures where human works with intelligent assistant agents to assign the tasks in any way. Dynamic tasks are identified by the human agent of the rescue team in the crisis environment and are characterized by spatial–temporal characteristics assigned to the appropriate rescue team by the intelligent assistant agents who apply intelligent decision-making techniques. The objective of this study is to propose a new approach for allocating spatial–temporal tasks in multi-agent systems through cellular learning automata as the decision-making technique. Results obtained here indicate that this proposed model can significantly improve the rescue time and space. Rescue teams could cover all critical areas by going through the minimum distance to make maximum use of time.


Spatial–temporal task allocation Multi-agent system Cellular learning automata Earthquake emergency response Geospatial simulation Urban search and rescue 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ComputingMacquarie UniversityNorth Ryde, NSWAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Computer EngineeringK.N. Toosi University of TechnologyTehranIran
  3. 3.Department of Computer Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran

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