Soft Computing

, Volume 22, Issue 24, pp 8167–8175 | Cite as

Solving travelling salesman problem using black hole algorithm

  • Abdolreza HatamlouEmail author
Methodologies and Application


Over the last few decades, many nature-inspired algorithms have been proposed for solving complex and difficult problems. Each algorithm has its own merits and drawbacks. One of the most recent nature-inspired algorithms, which has been applied successfully in many applications, is black hole (BH) algorithm. BH algorithm is a population-based meta-heuristic algorithm that is inspired by the black hole phenomenon. It starts with a random population of solutions to the given optimization problem. The most excellent solution at each iteration which has the best fitness is chosen to be the black hole and the other form the stars. The black hole pulls the stars towards it and causes them to search the problem space for finding optimal solution. In this paper, the application of the BH algorithm on solving travelling salesman problem (TSP) is investigated. The aim of TSP is to find a tour in a set of cities in such a way, each city is visited exactly once and return to the starting city where the length of the tour is minimized. In order to evaluate the efficiency of the BH algorithm, it has been tested on several benchmark data sets and compared to other well-known algorithms. The experimental results show that the BH algorithm can find high-quality solutions compared to genetic algorithm, ant colony optimization and particle swarms optimization algorithms. Moreover, the BH algorithm is faster than other test algorithms.


Black hole algorithm Travelling salesman problem Meta-heuristic algorithms 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science, Khoy BranchIslamic Azad UniversityKhoyIran

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