A QDCT- and SVD-based color image watermarking scheme using an optimized encrypted binary computer-generated hologram

  • Jianzhong Li
  • Qun Lin
  • Chuying Yu
  • Xuechang Ren
  • Ping Li
Methodologies and Application


Based on quaternion discrete cosine transform (QDCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD), a novel color image watermarking scheme using an optimized encrypted binary computer-generated hologram (CGH) as the watermark is presented. A Fibonacci transform-based binary CGH technique that uses particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to improve the reconstructed image quality has been proposed to generate a hologram of a watermark. By use of QDCT, the host color image is treated holistically as a vector field. The component of the host color image after QDCT, which is suitable for embedding watermark, is analyzed. With SVD, the mark CGH is inserted into the host color image by modifying the U matrix. To embed the binary CGH, multiple embedding strength factors are used in this study. To withstand the geometric attacks, based on Zernike moment algorithm and invariant centroid, an improved geometric distortion detection algorithm is proposed. Considering the significant color information, this algorithm is performed on the color invariance model. To obtain better imperceptibility and robustness, PSO is used for finding the proper multiple embedding strength factors. Compared with traditional geometric estimation method, the improved algorithm can estimate the transform parameters of the geometric distorted color image more accurately. Experimental results show that the proposed color image watermarking is not only secure and invisible, but also robust against common image processing operations and geometrical distortions.


Color image watermarking Quaternion discrete cosine transform Computer-generated hologram Geometric correction 



This work is partly supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (No. 2014A030310038), the Educational Commission of Guangdong Province (No. 2013KJCX0127, No. 2015KTSCX089) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 20720160016).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Author Jianzhong Li declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Qun Lin declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Chuying Yu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Xuechang Ren declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Ping Li declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianzhong Li
    • 1
  • Qun Lin
    • 1
  • Chuying Yu
    • 2
  • Xuechang Ren
    • 3
  • Ping Li
    • 4
  1. 1.College of Mathematics and StatisticsHanshan Normal UniversityChaozhouChina
  2. 2.School of Physics and Electronic EngineeringHanshan Normal UniversityChaozhouChina
  3. 3.School of Physics and Electronic EngineeringXiamen UniversityXiamenChina
  4. 4.Department of Computer ScienceGuangzhou UniversityGuangzhouChina

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