A QDCT- and SVD-based color image watermarking scheme using an optimized encrypted binary computer-generated hologram
- 173 Downloads
Based on quaternion discrete cosine transform (QDCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD), a novel color image watermarking scheme using an optimized encrypted binary computer-generated hologram (CGH) as the watermark is presented. A Fibonacci transform-based binary CGH technique that uses particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm to improve the reconstructed image quality has been proposed to generate a hologram of a watermark. By use of QDCT, the host color image is treated holistically as a vector field. The component of the host color image after QDCT, which is suitable for embedding watermark, is analyzed. With SVD, the mark CGH is inserted into the host color image by modifying the U matrix. To embed the binary CGH, multiple embedding strength factors are used in this study. To withstand the geometric attacks, based on Zernike moment algorithm and invariant centroid, an improved geometric distortion detection algorithm is proposed. Considering the significant color information, this algorithm is performed on the color invariance model. To obtain better imperceptibility and robustness, PSO is used for finding the proper multiple embedding strength factors. Compared with traditional geometric estimation method, the improved algorithm can estimate the transform parameters of the geometric distorted color image more accurately. Experimental results show that the proposed color image watermarking is not only secure and invisible, but also robust against common image processing operations and geometrical distortions.
KeywordsColor image watermarking Quaternion discrete cosine transform Computer-generated hologram Geometric correction
This work is partly supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province (No. 2014A030310038), the Educational Commission of Guangdong Province (No. 2013KJCX0127, No. 2015KTSCX089) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 20720160016).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Author Jianzhong Li declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Qun Lin declares that he has no conflict of interest. Author Chuying Yu declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Xuechang Ren declares that she has no conflict of interest. Author Ping Li declares that he has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
- Benhocine A, Laouamer L, Nana L et al (2008) A new approach against color attacks of watermarked images. In: Proceedings of international conference on intelligent information hiding and multimedia signal processing, pp 969–972Google Scholar
- Chang HT, Tsan CL (2005) Image watermarking by use of digital holography embedded in the discrete-cosine-transform domain. Appl Opt 44:6211–6219Google Scholar
- Chen DQ, Gu JH, Zhou H (2011) Digital audio watermarking based on holographic nonlinear limiter. In: Proceedings of international conference on electronics and optoelectronics, pp 91–94Google Scholar
- Gai Q, Sun YF, Wang XL et al (2009) Color image digital watermarking using discrete quaternion cosine-transform. J Optoelectron Laser 20:1193–1197Google Scholar
- Gonzalez RC, Woods RE (2007) Digital image processing, 3rd edn. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
- Guo P, Wang J, Li B, Lee SY (2014) A variable threshold-value authentication architecture for wireless mesh networks. J Internet Technol 15:929–936Google Scholar
- Jagadeesh B, Rajesh Kumar P, Chenna Reddy P (2016) Robust digital image watermarking based on fuzzy inference system and back propagation neural networks using DCT. Soft Comput 20:3679–3686Google Scholar
- Li JZ, Zhu YH (2010) A geometric robust image watermarking scheme based on DWT-SVD and Zernike moments. In: Proceedings of The 3rd IEEE international conference on computer science and information technology, pp 367–371Google Scholar
- Li J, Li XL, Yang B, Sun XM (2015a) Segmentation-based image copy-move forgery detection scheme. IEEE Trans Inf Forensic Secur 10:507–518Google Scholar
- Okman OE, Akar GB (2007) Quantization index modulation-based image watermarking using digital holography. J Opt Soc Am A 24:243–253Google Scholar
- Pizzolante R, Carpentieri B, Castiglione A et al (2011) The AVQ algorithm: watermarking and compression performances. In: Proceedings of intelligent networking and collaborative systems, pp 698–702Google Scholar
- Pizzolante R, Castiglione A, Carpentieri B et al (2014) Protection of microscopy images through digital watermarking techniques. In: Proceedings of intelligent networking and collaborative systems, pp 65–72Google Scholar
- Sathik MM, Sujatha SS (2012) A novel DWT based invisible watermarking technique for digital images. Int Arab J e-Technol 2:167–172Google Scholar
- Shen J, Tan HW, Wang J et al (2015) A novel routing protocol providing good transmission reliability in underwater sensor networks. J Internet Technol 16:171–178Google Scholar
- Sun J, Yang JY (2010) Quaternion frequency watermarking algorithm for color images. In: Proceedings of international conference on multimedia technology, pp 1–4Google Scholar
- Wang FH, Pan JS, Jain LC, Huang HC (2004) A VQ-based image-in-image data hiding scheme. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on multimedia and expo, pp 2191–2194Google Scholar
- Yan W, Hu YH, Shou GH et al (2010) The algorithm of color image watermarking based on SIFT. In: Proceedings of The 2nd international conference on E-business and information system security, pp 1–4Google Scholar
- Yu ZL, Jin GF (1984) Computer-generated hologram. Press of Tsinghua University, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- Zheng YH, Jeon B, Xu DH et al (2015) Image segmentation by generalized hierarchical fuzzy C-means algorithm. J Intell Fuzzy Syst 28:961–973Google Scholar