Soft Computing

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 503–518 | Cite as

Evolving optimum populations with XCS classifier systems

XCS with code fragmented action
  • Muhammad IqbalEmail author
  • Will N. Browne
  • Mengjie Zhang
Original Paper


The main goal of the research direction is to extract building blocks of knowledge from a problem domain. Once extracted successfully, these building blocks are to be used in learning more complex problems of the domain, in an effort to produce a scalable learning classifier system (LCS). However, whilst current LCS (and other evolutionary computation techniques) discover good rules, they also create sub-optimum rules. Therefore, it is difficult to separate good building blocks of information from others without extensive post-processing. In order to provide richness in the LCS alphabet, code fragments similar to tree expressions in genetic programming are adopted. The accuracy-based XCS concept is used as it aims to produce maximally general and accurate classifiers, albeit the rule base requires condensation (compaction) to remove spurious classifiers. Serendipitously, this work on scalability of LCS produces compact rule sets that can be easily converted to the optimum population. The main contribution of this work is the ability to clearly separate the optimum rules from others without the need for expensive post-processing for the first time in LCS. This paper identifies that consistency of action in rich alphabets guides LCS to optimum rule sets.


Learning classifier systems XCS Optimal populations Scalability Code fragments Action consistency 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Muhammad Iqbal
    • 1
    Email author
  • Will N. Browne
    • 1
  • Mengjie Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Engineering and Computer ScienceVictoria University of WellingtonWellingtonNew Zealand

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