Soft Computing

, Volume 16, Issue 12, pp 1997–2008 | Cite as

Controlling interactive evolution of 8-bit melodies with genetic programming

  • Maximos A. Kaliakatsos-PapakostasEmail author
  • Michael G. Epitropakis
  • Andreas Floros
  • Michael N. Vrahatis
Original Paper


Automatic music composition and sound synthesis is a field of study that gains continuously increasing attention. The introduction of evolutionary computation has further boosted the research towards exploring ways to incorporate human supervision and guidance in the automatic evolution of melodies and sounds. This kind of human–machine interaction belongs to a larger methodological context called interactive evolution (IE). For the automatic creation of art and especially for music synthesis, user fatigue requires that the evolutionary process produces interesting content that evolves fast. This paper addresses this issue by presenting an IE system that evolves melodies using genetic programming (GP). A modification of the GP operators is proposed that allows the user to have control on the randomness of the evolutionary process. The results obtained by subjective tests indicate that the utilization of the proposed genetic operators drives the evolution to more user-preferable sounds.


Interactive evolution Music composition Sound synthesis Genetic programming Fitness-adaptive genetic operators 



The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and ideas that helped to improve and extend the content as well as the clarity of this paper. We would also like to thank the participants who voluntarily participated in this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maximos A. Kaliakatsos-Papakostas
    • 1
    Email author
  • Michael G. Epitropakis
    • 1
  • Andreas Floros
    • 2
  • Michael N. Vrahatis
    • 1
  1. 1.Computational Intelligence Laboratory (CILAB), Department of MathematicsUniversity of PatrasPatrasGreece
  2. 2.Department of Audio and Visual ArtsIonian UniversityCorfuGreece

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