Soft Computing

, Volume 10, Issue 9, pp 836–849 | Cite as

Fuzzy systems design: direct and indirect approaches



A systematic classification of the data-driven approaches for design of fuzzy systems is given in the paper. The possible ways to solve this modelling and identification problem are classified on the basis of the optimisation techniques used for this purpose. One algorithm for each of the two basic categories of design methods is presented and its advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Both types of algorithms are self-learning and do not require interaction during the process of fuzzy model design. They perform adaptation of both the fuzzy model structure (rule-base) and the parameters. The indirect approach exploits the dual nature of Takagi-Sugeno (TS) models and is based on recently introduced recursive clustering combined with Kalman filtering-based procedure for recursive estimation of the parameter of the local sub-models. Both algorithms result in finding compact and transparent fuzzy models. The direct approach solves the optimisation problem directly, while the indirect one decomposes the original problem into on-line clustering and recursive estimation problems and finds a sub-optimal solution in real-time. The later one is computationally very efficient and has a range of potential applications in real-time process control, moving images recognition, autonomous systems design etc. It is extended in this paper for the case of multi-input–multi-output (MIMO systems). Both approaches have been tested with real data from an engineering process.


Fuzzy models design Takagi-Sugeno and Mamdani fuzzy models On-line clustering Recursive least squares estimation Genetic algorithms 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Communication SystemsLancaster University BialriggLancasterUK

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