In vitro double fertilization in Nicotiana tabacum (L.): fusion behavior and gamete interaction traced by video-enhanced microscopy
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In vitro double fertilization in tobacco was carried out with attention to fusion behavior and gamete interaction. Structural and cytological events indicating possible reaction to the fusion of sperm-egg and especially sperm-central cell were recorded by video-enhanced microscopy. Generative cells were fused with the egg cell or central cell as a control system to better understand gamete interaction. As early as adherence of the male cell, the female cell showed response by means of cytoplasm strand formation. After gamete fusion, cytoplasm activation in the egg cell was observed as long distance movement of organelles. In fertilized central cells, however, fusion did not result in notable cytological change within 30 min. Male nuclear movement recorded in the female cell illustrated two different patterns of movement which showed similarity to organelle movement. The dynamics of male and female nuclear fusion after in vitro fertilization was also recorded in the central cell. It revealed that the fusion process requires only a few seconds and is similar to that of gamete fusion in vitro. This may offer a new clue for understanding how female and male nuclei attract, adhere and finally fuse each other.
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