Autonomous endosperm induction by in vitro culture of unfertilized ovules of Viola odorata L.
Autonomous endosperm was found in unfertilized ovules of V. odorata L. cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D as a sole growth regulator or on media with 2,4-D and BAP or kinetin. Frequency of endosperm induction was approximately 9% in ovules analyzed. The induction rate depended mainly on genotype of the donor plant, and to lesser degrees, on floral stage, flower series and medium type. Multinuclear endosperms consisting of 10–37 nuclei were found in ovules after as few as 4 days of culture. In some ovules at this stage, the egg cell and two polar nuclei were present. The process of endosperm degeneration began after 3 weeks of culture. In some ovules, degenerating autonomous endosperm was observed up to the 7th week. Parthenogenetic development of egg cells or apogamy did not accompany autonomous endosperm, supporting the hypothesis of independent pathways for embryo and endosperm development.
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