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Sexual Plant Reproduction

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 164–170 | Cite as

Autonomous endosperm induction by in vitro culture of unfertilized ovules of Viola odorata L.

  • Magdalena Wijowska
  • E. Kuta
  • Leslaw Przywara
Original Paper

Abstract 

Autonomous endosperm was found in unfertilized ovules of V. odorata L. cultured on MS medium supplemented with 2,4-D as a sole growth regulator or on media with 2,4-D and BAP or kinetin. Frequency of endosperm induction was approximately 9% in ovules analyzed. The induction rate depended mainly on genotype of the donor plant, and to lesser degrees, on floral stage, flower series and medium type. Multinuclear endosperms consisting of 10–37 nuclei were found in ovules after as few as 4 days of culture. In some ovules at this stage, the egg cell and two polar nuclei were present. The process of endosperm degeneration began after 3 weeks of culture. In some ovules, degenerating autonomous endosperm was observed up to the 7th week. Parthenogenetic development of egg cells or apogamy did not accompany autonomous endosperm, supporting the hypothesis of independent pathways for embryo and endosperm development.

Key words Viola odorata In vitro culture Unfertilized ovules Autonomous endosperm 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Magdalena Wijowska
    • 1
  • E. Kuta
    • 1
  • Leslaw Przywara
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Plant Cytology and Embryology, Jagiellonien University, ul. Grodzka 52, 31-044 Krakow, Poland, E-mail: kutael@grodzki.phils.uj.edu.pl; Fax + 48-12-4228107PL

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