Endosperm response to pollen irradiation in kiwifruit
Cytological details of endosperm development after pollination with irradiated pollen were studied in Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit) cultivar Hayward. Pollinations were carried out involving five different sources of pollen (Matua, Tomuri, Burt, Berryman, and fruiting male) irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 700 and 900 Gy. Non-irradiated crosses were used as controls. Irradiated pollen induced development of approximately 25–30% of the ovules. Two types of ovules were observed: (1) with both embryo and endosperm and (2) with endosperm only. No mitotic abnormalities were found in control or irradiated endosperms. Mitotic divisions were regular and nuclei spherical and evenly spaced. However, the cells of irradiated endosperm usually contained low amounts of storage products. Ploidy level of the endosperms was evaluated by nuclear size (volume) with the use of image analyzis. Mean nuclear size in control and irradiated endosperms was 1598.3 and 750.9 μm3, respectively. It is concluded that endosperm produced after pollination with irradiated pollen is autonomous and represents the 2n level.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.