This year marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of double fertilization by Nawaschin in St. Petersburg, Russia and, independently, Guignard in France. This discovery came at the end of a period of controversy about fertilization in angiosperms and ushered in a new period of intense research. Still, by 1950, there were many unanswered questions about double fertilization because of limitations of the light microscope. The introduction of the electron microscope stimulated new research and helped resolve some of the questions. My own research with the electron microscope and that of people who worked in my laboratory is recounted and some of the still unanswered questions raised.
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