Male functions and malfunctions: the impact of phosphoinositides on pollen development and pollen tube growth
- 1.2k Downloads
Phosphoinositides in pollen.
In angiosperms, sexual reproduction is a series of complex biological events that facilitate the distribution of male generative cells for double fertilization. Angiosperms have no motile gametes, and the distribution units of generative cells are pollen grains, passively mobile desiccated structures, capable of delivering genetic material to compatible flowers over long distances and in an adverse environment. The development of pollen (male gametogenesis) and the formation of a pollen tube after a pollen grain has reached a compatible flower (pollen tube growth) are important aspects of plant developmental biology. In recent years, a wealth of information has been gathered about the molecular control of cell polarity, membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal dynamics underlying these developmental processes. In particular, it has been found that regulatory membrane phospholipids, such as phosphoinositides (PIs), are critical regulatory players, controlling key steps of trafficking and polarization. Characteristic features of PIs are the inositol phosphate headgroups of the lipids, which protrude from the cytosolic surfaces of membranes, enabling specific binding and recruitment of numerous protein partners containing specific PI-binding domains. Such recruitment is globally an early event in polarization processes of eukaryotic cells and also of key importance to pollen development and tube growth. Additionally, PIs serve as precursors of other signaling factors with importance to male gametogenesis. This review highlights the recent advances about the roles of PIs in pollen development and pollen function.
KeywordsPhosphoinositides Polar tip growth Pollen tube Phosphatidic acid Lipid signaling Pollen development
Author contribution statement
I. H. and T. I. both wrote the manuscript.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflict of interests.
- Delage E, Puyaubert J, Zachowski A, Ruelland E (2013) Signal transduction pathways involving phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate: convergences and divergences among eukaryotic kingdoms. Prog Lipid Res 52:1–14. doi: 10.1016/j.plipres.2012.08.003 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gao YB, Wang CL, Wu JY, Zhou HS, Jiang XT, Wu J, Zhang SL (2014) Low temperature inhibits pollen tube growth by disruption of both tip-localized reactive oxygen species and endocytosis in Pyrus bretschneideri Rehd. Plant Physiol Biochem 74:255–262. doi: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2013.11.018 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huang J et al (2006) An ankyrin repeat-containing protein, characterized as a ubiquitin ligase, is closely associated with membrane-enclosed organelles and required for pollen germination and pollen tube growth in lily. Plant Physiol 140:1374–1383. doi: 10.1104/pp.105.074922 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Huang WJ, Liu HK, McCormick S, Tang WH (2014) Tomato pistil factor STIG1 promotes in vivo pollen tube growth by binding to phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and the extracellular domain of the pollen receptor kinase LePRK2. Plant Cell 26:2505–2523. doi: 10.1105/tpc.114.123281 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mähs A, Ischebeck T, Heilig Y, Stenzel I, Hempel F, Seiler S, Heilmann I (2012) The essential phosphoinositide kinase MSS-4 Is required for polar hyphal morphogenesis, localizing to sites of growth and cell fusion in Neurospora crassa. PLoS ONE 7:e51454. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0051454 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Oxley D, Ktistakis N, Farmaki T (2013) Differential isolation and identification of PI(3)P and PI(3,5)P2 binding proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana using an agarose-phosphatidylinositol-phosphate affinity chromatography. J Proteomics 91:580–594. doi: 10.1016/j.jprot.2013.08.020 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhong R, Burk DH, Nairn CJ, Wood-Jones A, Morrison WH 3rd, Ye ZH (2005) Mutation of SAC1, an Arabidopsis SAC domain phosphoinositide phosphatase, causes alterations in cell morphogenesis, cell wall synthesis, and actin organization. Plant Cell 17:1449–1466. doi: 10.1105/tpc.105.031377 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar