International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 212–216 | Cite as

The effects of temperature, altitude and latitude on the arrival and departure dates of the swallow Hirundo rustica in the Slovak Republic

  • T. H. Sparks
  • O. Braslavská
Original Article


The (barn) swallow Hirundo rustica is a traditional harbinger of spring in many countries of the Northern Hemisphere. This paper uses information on the arrival and departure dates of the swallow in the Slovak Republic for the 30 years 1961–1985 and 1996–2000. Records were taken at 19 locations throughout the Republic representing an altitude range from 105 m to 760 m. Monthly temperature data were constructed from six meteorological stations. With the use of regression techniques, trends towards later arrival, earlier departure and the effects of latitude, altitude and temperature are all apparent.

Keywords  Migration timing Hirundo rustica Temperature Altitude Latitude 


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Copyright information

© International Society of Biometeorology 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. H. Sparks
    • 1
  • O. Braslavská
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Monks Wood, Abbots Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE28 2LS, UK e-mail:
  2. 2.Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute, Zelená 5, 97590 Banská Bystrica, Slovak RepublicSK

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