International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 53–59 | Cite as

Spring phenology trends in Alberta, Canada: links to ocean temperature

  • E. G. Beaubien
  • H. J. Freeland
Original Article


Warmer winter and spring temperatures have been noted over the last century in Western Canada. Earlier spring plant development in recent decades has been reported for Europe, but not for North America. The first-bloom dates for Edmonton, Alberta, were extracted from four historical data sets, and a spring flowering index showed progressively earlier development. For Populus tremuloides, a linear trend shows a 26-day shift to earlier blooming over the last century. The spring flowering index correlates with the incidence of El Niño events and with Pacific sea-surface temperatures.


North America Linear Trend Early Development Historical Data Populus 
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Copyright information

© International Society of Biometeorology 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. G. Beaubien
    • 1
  • H. J. Freeland
    • 2
  1. 1.Devonian Botanic Garden, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1, Canada e-mail: Tel.: +1-780-987-5455/3054, Fax: +1-780-987-4141CA
  2. 2.Institute of Ocean Sciences, P.O. Box 6000, Sidney, British Columbia V8L 4B2, CanadaCA

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