Outdoor environment management through air enthalpy analysis

  • Firmo Sousa CamposEmail author
  • Valéria Cristina Rodrigues Sarnighausen
  • Carla dos Santos Riccardi
Special Issue: Brazilian Congress - Jaboticabal 2017


With the ever-progressing urbanization of human society comes lingering public issues, primarily those related to human health and the need to provide environments where the population can be routinely frequent. Also, the effects of climatic changes tend to aggravate such public health issues, mainly respiratory and cardiac symptoms. As such, analyzing and studying those environments can be crucial for public administrations in the decision-making processes. One such method of analysis involves using an air enthalpy index to profile and provide a picture of stress situations, helping expedite preventive measures and hospital logistics. With that, this study used the enthalpy index as a tool to create a picture of the effect of seasonality on chronic health issues, such as respiratory and cardiac symptoms, for the city of Botucatu, a city with a characteristic tropical altitude climate. It was possible to determine that the air enthalpy profile is consistent throughout the year near the estimated thermal comfort boundaries, with peaks outside in hotter months. The hospitalizations tend to be more numerous during the transition from hot to cold seasons. Simple correlation analysis, along with a t test, provided further insight into the issue, showing strong correlation for pneumonia with the maximum enthalpy variation, which can relate to the heat amount variation in a given location. Also, an agreement was observed between enthalpy and an established thermal sensation index, the heat index, meaning that air enthalpy can be a reliable and simple index for environmental thermal comfort analysis. That being said, further studies are necessary to confirm these findings, considering a longer time frame, more diverse hospitalization data, and other meteorological parameters, like wind speed and precipitation.


Human biometeorology Diseases Preventive measurements Thermal comfort Air enthalpy 



Partial data of this present work were previously published in the VII Brazilian Congress of Biometeorology, Ambience, Behavior and Animal Welfare (VII CBBiomet).


  1. Albright LD (1990) Environment control for animals and plants. ASAE Textbook, vol 4. American Society of Agricultural Engineers Michigan, St. JosephGoogle Scholar
  2. Almeida EKA, Steinke ET (2016) Casos de internação hospitalar por doenças do aparelho respiratório e sua relação com variáveis meteorológicas no Distrito Federal, entre 2003 e 2012. Geografia 41:147–166Google Scholar
  3. Almeida GLP, Pandorfi H, Guiselini C, Henrique HM, Almeida GAP (2011) Uso do sistema de resfriamento adiabático evaporativo no conforto térmico de vacas da raça girolando. Rev Bras Eng Agric Amb 15:754–760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Altman NS, Krzywinski M (2015) Points of significance: association, correlation and causation. Nat Methods 12:899–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Azevedo PV, Bezerra PTC, Leitão MMVBR, Santos CAC (2015) Characterization of human thermal comfort in urban areas of Brazilian semiarid. Rev Bras Meteorol 30:371–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barnett AG, Sans S, Salomaa V (2007) The effect of temperature on systolic blood pressure. Blood Press Monit 12:195–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bunker A, Wildenhain J, Vandenbergh A, Henschke N, Rocklov J, Hajat S, Sauerborn R (2016) Effects of air temperature on climate-sensitive mortality and morbidity outcomes in the elderly: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence. EBioMedicine 6:258–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Centro de Pesquisas Meteorológicas e Climáticas Aplicadas à Agricultura (CEPAGRI). Clima dos municípios paulistas. Accessed 04 April 2017
  9. Chu CM, Jong TL (2008) Enthalpy estimation for thermal comfort and energy saving in air conditioning system. Energy Convers Manag 49:1620–1628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen P, Cohen P, West S, Aiken L (1983) Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavorial sciences. Psychology Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Fanger PO (1970) Thermal comfort: analysis and applications in environmental engineering. Copenhagen - Danish Technical Press.Google Scholar
  12. Gerber Y, Jacobsen SJ, Killian JM, Weston SA, Roger VL (2006) Seasonality and daily weather conditions in relation to myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death in Olmsted County, Minnesota, 1979 to 2002. J Am Coll Cardiol 48:287–292CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gomes LCF (2016) Comportamento espaço-temporal da pneumonia e suas relações com os elementos climáticos e socioeconômicos em Campina Grande-PB. Thesis, Universidade Federal do CearáGoogle Scholar
  14. Gregorczuk M (1968) Bioclimates of the world related to air enthalpy. Int J Biometeorol 12:35–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Heidari H, Golbabaei F, Shamsipour A, Forushani AR, Gaeni A (2016) Determination of air enthalpy based on meteorological data as an indicator for heat stress assessment in occupational outdoor environments, a field study in Iran. J Res Health Sci 16(3):133-140Google Scholar
  16. Holmes DR Jr, Aguirre FV, Aplin R (2010) Circadian rhythms in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes 3:382–389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (INMET). Conforto Térmico Humano. Accessed 20 March 2017
  18. Jehn M, Donaldson G, Kiran B, Liebers U, Mueller K, Scherer D, Endlicher W, Witt C (2013) Tele-monitoring reduces exacerbation of COPD in the context of climate change-a randomized controlled trial. Environ Health 12:99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jehn M, Gebhardt A, Liebers U, Kiran B, Scherer D, Endlicher W, Witt C (2014) Heat stress is associated with reduced health status in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a prospective study cohort. Lung 192:619–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Landsberg HE (1972). The assessment of human bioclimate. World Meteorological OrganizationGoogle Scholar
  21. DATASUS - TABNET. Ministério da Saúde. Portal da Saúde. Accessed 23 March 2017
  22. Moran DS, Pandolf KB, Shapiro Y, Heled Y, Shani Y, Mathew WT, Gonzalez RR (2001) An environmental stress index (ESI) as a substitute for the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). J Therm Biol 26:427–431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Nagarajan V, Fonarow GC, Ju C, Pencina M, Laskey WK, Maddox TM, Hernandez A, Bhatt DL (2017) Seasonal and circadian variations of acute myocardial infarction: findings from the Get with The Guidelines-Coronary Artery Disease (GWTG-CAD) program. Am Heart J 189:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rodrigues VC, Silva IJO, Vieira FMC, Nascimento ST (2011) A correct relationship as thermal comfort index for livestock. Int J Biometeorol (Print) 55:455–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rothfusz LP (1990) The heat index equation (or, more than you ever wanted to know about heat index). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Office of Meteorology Headquarters, Fort WorthGoogle Scholar
  26. Santos VM, Dallago BSL, Racanicci AMC, Santana AP, Bernal FEM (2017) Effects of season and distance during transport on broiler chicken meat. Poult Sci 96:4270–4279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sevegnani KB, Fernandes DPB, Silva SHM (2016) Evaluation of thermorregulatory capacity of dairy buffaloes using infrared thermography. Eng Agric 36(1):1–12Google Scholar
  28. Shaposhnikov D, Revich B (2008) Excess mortality during heat waves and cold spells in Moscow, Russia. Occup Environ Med http://10.1136/oem.2007.033944 65(10):691-696Google Scholar
  29. Silva IJO, Barbosa Filho JAD, Silva MAN, Piedade SMS (2006) Influence of breeding systems on behavior of two lineages of laying hens exposed to two environmental conditions. Rev Bras Zootec 35(4):1439-1446Google Scholar
  30. Stafoggia M, Schwartz J, Forastiere F, Perucci CA (2008) Does temperature modify the association between air pollution and mortality? A multicity case-crossover analysis in Italy. Am J Epidemiol http://10.1093/aje/kwn074 167(12):1476-1485Google Scholar
  31. Stewart S, McIntyre K, Capewell S, McMurray JJ (2002) Heart failure in a cold climate: seasonal variation in heart failure-related morbidity and mortality. J Am Coll Cardiol 39:760–766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sun S, Laden F, Hart JE, Qiu H, Wang Y, Wong CM, Lee RS, Tian L (2018) Seasonal temperature variability and emergency hospital admissions for respiratory diseases: a population-based cohort study. Thorax http://10.1136/thoraxjnl-2017-211333 73:951–958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Vanasse A, Talbot D, Chebana F, Bélanger D, Blais C, Gamache P, Giroux JX, Dault R, Gosselin P (2017) Effects of climate and fine particulate matter on hospitalizations and deaths for heart failure in elderly: a population-based cohort study. Environ Int 106:257–266Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.UNESP Bauru CampusSao PauloBrazil
  2. 2.Bioprocesses and Biotechnology Department, School of Agricultural SciencesUNESP Botucatu CampusSao PauloBrazil

Personalised recommendations