Grain development and endogenous hormones in summer maize (Zea mays L.) submitted to different light conditions
- 276 Downloads
Low light is a type of abiotic stress that seriously affects plant growth and production efficiency. We investigated the response mechanisms of summer maize to low light by measuring the changes in endogenous hormones in the grains and during grain filling in summer maize at different light intensities to provide a theoretical basis for the production and management of summer maize under light stress. We applied different light treatments in a field experiment as follows: S, shading from tassel stage (VT) to maturity stage (R6); CK, natural lighting in the field; and L, increasing light from VT to R6. The shading level was 60%, and the maximum illumination intensity of the increasing light treatment on cloudy days was 1600–1800 μmol m−2 s−1. Compared with the control, shading significantly increased the grain abscisic acid (ABA) content at 5–20 days after pollination and decreased the indole acetic acid (IAA), zeatin riboside (ZR), and gibberellin (GA) contents (P < 0.05). The grain-filling rate decreased under shading conditions. Meanwhile, the grain volume, grain weight, and yield all decreased; the yields in 2013 and 2014 decreased by 61 and 60%, respectively. The grain IAA, ZR, and GA contents were increased by increasing light. The grain ABA content at 5–20 days after pollination did not significantly differ from that of CK (P < 0.05). After 20 days after pollination, the ABA content decreased, the grain-filling rate and the filling duration increased, and the yield increased. However, shading after anthesis increased the grain ABA content and reduced the IAA, ZR, and GA contents. Grain growth and development were inhibited, and the yield decreased. The grain ABA content decreased; the IAA, ZR, and GA contents increased; and the yield increased after increasing light. The results indicate that different light intensities regulated the levels of grains endogenous hormones, which influenced the grain-filling rate and duration, and consequently, regulated grain weight and yield.
KeywordsSummer maize Shading Increasing light Endogenous hormones Grain development
The authors are grateful to the reviewers and editors for their constructive review and suggestions for this paper.
This study was funded by National Natural Science Funds (31671629), The State Key Research and Development Program (2017YFD0300304), National Modern Agricultural Technology and Industry System (CARS-02-18), Funds of Shandong “Double Tops” Program (SYL2017YSTD02).
- Bhardwaj SN, Verma V (1985) Hormonal-regulation of assimilate translocation during grain-growth in wheat. Indian J Exp Biol 23:719–721Google Scholar
- Chen GP, Wang RH, Zhao JR (2009) Analysis on yield structural model and key factors of maize high-yield plots. J Maize Sci 17:89–93 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Cui HY, Jin LB, Li B, Dong ST, Liu P, Zhao B, Zhang JW (2013a) Effects of shading on dry matter accumulation and nutrient absorption of summer maize. Chin J Appl Ecol 11:3099–3105 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Ren GY, Guo J, Xu MZ, Chu ZY, Zhang L, Zou XK, Li QY, Liu XN (2005) Climate changes of Chinese mainland over the past half century. Acta Meteor Sin 63:942–956 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Shi JG, Zhu KL, Cui HY, Zhao B, Dong ST, Liu P, Zhang JW (2015) Effect of light from flowering to maturity stage on dry matter accumulation and nutrient absorption of summer maize. Chin J Appl Ecol 26(1):46–52 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Sun QQ, Wu YQ, Hu CH, Dong ST, Rong TZ, Zhang Y (2005) Physiological activities and multiplication of endosperm cell at filling stage of kernels with different yield in maize. Acta Agron Sin 31(5):612–618 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Wu LJ, Tian L, Wang SX, Zhang J, Liu P, Tian ZQ, Zhang HM, Liu HP, Chen YH (2016) Comparative proteomic analysis of the response of maize (Zea mays L.) leaves to long photoperiod condition. Front Plant Sci 7:752Google Scholar
- Yang YW, Yu Q, Wang J (2004) Spatio-temporal variations of principal climatic factors in North China and part of East China within past 40 years. Resour Sci 26(4):45–50 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Yang WB, Wang ZL, Yin YP, Li WY, Li Y, Chen XG, Wang P, Chen EY, Guo JX, Cai T, Ni YL (2011) Effects of spraying exogenous ABA or GA on the endogenous hormones concentration and filling of wheat grains. Sci Agric Sin 13:2673–2682 (in Chinese)Google Scholar