Human cold stress of strong local-wind “Hijikawa-arashi” in Japan, based on the UTCI index and thermo-physiological responses

  • Yukitaka Ohashi
  • Takumi Katsuta
  • Haruka Tani
  • Taiki Okabayashi
  • Satoshi Miyahara
  • Ryoji Miyashita
Original Paper
  • 40 Downloads

Abstract

We investigated the cold stress caused by a strong local wind called “Hijikawa-arashi,” through in situ vital measurements and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). This wind is a very interesting winter phenomenon, localized in an area within 1 km of the seashore in Ozu City, Ehime Prefecture in Japan. When a strong Hijikawa-arashi (HA) occurred at 14–15 m s−1, the UTCI decreased to − 30 °C along the bridge where commuting residents are the most exposed to strong and cold winds. On the bridge, most participants in our experiment felt “very cold” or “extremely cold.” The UTCI of HA can be predicted from a multiple regression equation using wind speed and air temperature. The cold HA wind is also harmful to human thermo-physiological responses. It leads to higher blood pressure and increased heart rate, both of which act as cardiovascular stress triggers. Increases of 6–10 mmHg and 3–6 bpm for every 10 °C reduction in UTCI were seen on all observational days, including HA and non-HA days. In fact, the participants’ body skin temperatures decreased by approximately 1.2 to 1.7 °C for every 10 °C reduction in UTCI. Thus, the UTCI variation due to the HA outbreak corresponded well with the cold sensation and thermo-physiological responses in humans. This result suggests that daily UTCI monitoring enables the prediction of thermo-physiological responses to the HA cold stress.

Keywords

Local wind Hijikawa-arashi Cold stress UTCI Thermo-physiological responses 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We highly appreciate the help and opportunity to conduct this study, provided by Yoshinori Shigeta of Tottori University of Environmental Studies, Shigeru Hiranuma, and Hiroyuki Iwamoto of IDEA Consultants Inc., Japan. We are grateful to all participants for their observations. This study was supported by the Wesco Scientific Promotion Foundation.

Compliance with ethical standards

All procedures performed in the studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of Okayama University of Science and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Banoo H, Gangwar V, Nabi N (2016) Effect of cold stress and the cold pressor test on blood pressure and heart rate. Int Arch Bio Med Clin Res 2:65–68Google Scholar
  2. Błażejczyk K, Epstein Y, Jendritzky G, Staiger H, Tinz B (2012) Comparison of UTCI to selected thermal indices. Int J Biometeorol 56:515–535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Błażejczyk K, Jendritzky G, Bröde P, Fiala D, Havenith G, Epstein Y, Psikuta A, Kampmann B (2013) An introduction to the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Geogr Pol 86:5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Błażejczyk K, Kuchcik M, Błażejczyk A, Milewski P, Szmyd J (2014) Assessment of urban thermal stress by UTCI—experimental and modelling studies: an example from Poland. Erde 145(1–2):16–33Google Scholar
  5. Briggs AGS, Gillespie TJ, Brown RD (2017) Measuring facial cooling in outdoor windy winter conditions: an exploratory study. Int J Biometeorol 61:1831–1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bröde P, Jendritzky G, Fiala D, Havenith G (2010) The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI in operational use. Proceedings of Conference: Adapting to Change: new thinking on comfort. Network for comfort and energy use in buildings, London, p 6Google Scholar
  7. Bröde P, Fiala D, Błażejczyk K, Holmér I, Jendritzky G (2012a) Deriving the operational procedure for the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI). Int J Biometeorol 56:481–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bröde P, Krüger LE, Rossi AF, Fiala D (2012b) Predicting urban outdoor thermal comfort by the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)—a case study in southern Brazil. Int J Biometeorol 56:471–480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cappaert TA, Stone JA, Castellani JW, Krause BA, Smith D, Stephens BA (2008) National athletic trainers’ association position statement: environmental cold injuries. J Athl Train 43:640–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Donaldson GC, Rintamäki H, Näyhä S (2001) Outdoor clothing: its relationship to geography, climate, behaviour and cold-related mortality in Europe. Int J Biometeorol 45:45–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fiala D, Lomas KJ, Stohrer M (1999) A computer model of human thermoregulation for a wide range of environmental conditions: the passive system. J Appl Physiol 87:1957–1972CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fiala D, Lomas KJ, Stohrer M (2001) Computer prediction of human thermoregulatory and temperature responses to a wide range of environmental conditions. Int J Biometeorol 45:143–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fiala D, Havenith G, Bröde P, Kampmann B, Jendritzky G (2012) UTCI—Fiala multi-node model of human heat transfer and temperature regulation. Int J Biometeorol 56:429–441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gavhed D (2003) Human responses to cold and wind. Doctoral thesis, Karolinska InstituteGoogle Scholar
  15. Gavhed D, Mäkinen T, Holmér I, Rintamäki H (2000) Face temperature and cardiorespiratory responses to wind in thermoneutral and cool subjects exposed to − 10 °C. Eur J Appl Physiol 83:449–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gavhed D, Mäkinen T, Holmér I, Rintamäki H (2003) Face cooling by cold wind in walking subjects. Int J Biometeorol 47:148–155Google Scholar
  17. Inoue Y, Nakao M, Araki T, Ueda H (1992) Thermoregulatory responses of young and older men to cold exposure. Eur J Appl Physiol 65:492–498CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jendritzky G, Havenith G, Weihs P, Batchvarova E, DeDear R (2007) The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) goal and state of COST action 730, “bioclimatology and natural hazards” international scientific conference, Polana nad Detvou, Slovakia, 17–20Google Scholar
  19. Kinouchi T (2001) A study on thermal indices for the outdoor environment. Tenki 48:661–671 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  20. Maeda T, Fukushima T, Ishibashi K, Higuchi S (2007) Involvement of basal metabolic rate in determination of type of cold tolerance. J Physiol Anthropl 26:415–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mäkinen T, Gavhed D, Holmér I, Rintamäki H (2000) Thermal responses to cold wind of thermoneutral and cooled subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol 81:397–402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Marti-Soler H, Gubelmann C, Aeschbacher S, Alves L, Bobak M, Bongard V, Clays E, de Gaetano G, di Castelnuovo A, Elosua R, Ferrieres J, Guessous I, Igland J, Jørgensen T, Nikitin Y, O'Doherty MG, Palmieri L, Ramos R, Simons J, Sulo G, Vanuzzo D, Vila J, Barros H, Borglykke A, Conen D, de Bacquer D, Donfrancesco C, Gaspoz JM, Giampaoli S, Giles GG, Iacoviello L, Kee F, Kubinova R, Malyutina S, Marrugat J, Prescott E, Ruidavets JB, Scragg R, Simons LA, Tamosiunas A, Tell GS, Vollenweider P, Marques-Vidal P (2014) Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors: an analysis including over 230,000 participants in 15 countries. Heart 100:1517–1523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Molnar RW (1960) An evaluation of wind-chill. In: Harvath SM (ed) Cold injury. J. Macy Jr. Foundation, New York, pp 175–222Google Scholar
  24. Mori Y, Kamada S (1994) Characteristics of diurnal variation of wind at the mouth of the Hiji River: an example of developed “land breeze”. Tenki 41:79–88 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  25. Nagoshi T (2009) Teaching materials on a fluid experiment of the local wind by using a solid relief model of geographical features: a case study of Hijikawa Arashi, a kind of land breeze with fogs. Education of Earth Sci 62:65–76 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  26. Nagoshi T, Kimura R (1998) Hydraulic jump in the atmosphere visualized by fog. Kashika Joho 18:229–232 (in Japanese)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Nakata T (1982) An investigative report on “Hijikawa-arashi.”. J Meteorol Res 34:135–139 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  28. Ohashi Y, Terao T, Shigeta Y, Ohsawa T (2015) In situ observational research of the gap wind “Hijikawa-arashi” in Japan. Meteorog Atmos Phys 127:33–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Parsons K (2003) Human thermal environment. Taylor & Francis Group, LondonGoogle Scholar
  30. Provençal S, Bergeron O, Leduc R, Barrette N (2016) Thermal comfort in Quebec City, Canada: sensitivity analysis of the UTCI and other popular thermal comfort indices in a mid-latitude continental city. Int J Biometeorol 60:591–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Psikuta A, Fiala D, Laschewski G, Jendritzky G, Richards M, Błażejczyk K, Mekjavič I, Rintamäki H, de Dear R, Havenith G (2012) Validation of the Fiala multi-node thermophysiological model for UTCI application. Int J Biometeorol 56:443–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Saue T (2016) Directional distribution of chilling winds in Estonia. Int J Biometeorol 60:1165–1173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Schreier S, Suomi I, Bröde P, Formayer H, Rieder EH, Nadeem I, Jendritzky G, Batchvarova E, Weihs P (2013) The uncertainty of UTCI due to uncertainties in the determination of radiation fluxes derived from numerical weather prediction and regional climate model simulations. Int J Biometeorol 57:207–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shabat YB, Shitzer A (2012) Facial convective heat exchange coefficients in cold and windy environments estimated from human experiments. Int J Biometeorol 56:639–651CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shaposhnikov D, Revich B, Gurfinkel Y, Naumova E (2014) The influence of meteorological and geomagnetic factors on acute myocardial infarction and brain stroke in Moscow, Russia. Int J Biometeorol 58:799–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Shigeta Y, Ohashi Y, Terao T, Ohsawa T (2014) Vertical structure of local wind “Hijikawa Arashi” found at coastal area in Ozu City. Tenki 61:91–96 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  37. Stewart S, Keates AK, Redfern A, McMurray JJV (2017) Seasonal variations in cardiovascular disease. Nat Rev Cardiol 14:654–664.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nrcardio.2017.76 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Stocks JM, Taylor NAS, Tipton MJ, Greenleaf JE (2004) Human physiological responses to cold exposure. Aviat Space Environ Med 75:444–457Google Scholar
  39. Tikuisis P, Ducharme MB, Brajkovic D (2007) Prediction of facial cooling while walking in cold wind. Comp Biol Med 37:1225–1231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yamane M, Oida Y, Ohnishi N, Matsumoto T, Kitagawa K (2009) Effects of wind and rain on thermal responses of human in cold environment. Research-aid paper of the Yasuda Life Welfare Foundation 24:12–20 (in Japanese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Biosphere-Geosphere ScienceOkayama University of ScienceOkayama CityJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Environmental InformaticsIDEA Consultants, Inc.Yokohama CityJapan

Personalised recommendations