International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 62, Issue 2, pp 165–175 | Cite as

Weather conditions: a neglected factor in human salivary cortisol research?

  • Goran Milas
  • Daniela Šupe-Domić
  • Irena Drmić-Hofman
  • Lada Rumora
  • Irena Martinović KlarićEmail author
Original Paper


There is ample evidence that environmental stressors such as extreme weather conditions affect animal behavior and that this process is in part mediated through the elevated activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis which results in an increase in cortisol secretion. This relationship has not been extensively researched in humans, and weather conditions have not been analyzed as a potential confounder in human studies of stress. Consequently, the goal of this paper was to assess the relationship between salivary cortisol and weather conditions in the course of everyday life and to test a possible moderating effect of two weather-related variables, the climate region and timing of exposure to outdoors conditions. The sample consisted of 903 secondary school students aged 18 to 21 years from Mediterranean and Continental regions. Cortisol from saliva was sampled in naturalistic settings at three time points over the course of a single day. We found that weather conditions are related to salivary cortisol concentration and that this relationship may be moderated by both the specific climate and the anticipation of immediate exposure to outdoors conditions. Unpleasant weather conditions are predictive for the level of salivary cortisol, but only among individuals who anticipate being exposed to it in the immediate future (e.g., in students attending school in the morning shift). We also demonstrated that isolated weather conditions or their patterns may be relevant in one climate area (e.g., Continental) while less relevant in the other (e.g., Mediterranean). Results of this study draw attention to the importance of controlling weather conditions in human salivary cortisol research.


Salivary cortisol HPA axis activity Weather conditions Climate Naturalistic study 



This study (CLASS) was taken with the framework of the project “Modernity Stress, Youth and Modernization” (09.01/408) financed by the Croatian Science Foundation, awarded to Dr. Irena Martinović Klarić. We are thankful to the Croatian Meteorological and Hydrological Service for providing meteorological data and especially to Mrs. Dubravka Rasol and Mr. Damir Mlinek for their kind assistance. We sincerely thank to Dr. Natasha Levak for proofreading of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© ISB 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Goran Milas
    • 1
  • Daniela Šupe-Domić
    • 2
  • Irena Drmić-Hofman
    • 3
    • 4
  • Lada Rumora
    • 5
  • Irena Martinović Klarić
    • 6
    Email author
  1. 1.Centre for Research on Interindividual DifferencesInstitute of Social Sciences “Ivo Pilar”ZagrebCroatia
  2. 2.Department of Medical Laboratory DiagnosticsUniversity Hospital Centre SplitSplitCroatia
  3. 3.Department of Pathology, Forensic Medicine and CytologyUniversity Hospital Centre SplitSplitCroatia
  4. 4.Department of Medical Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of Split School of MedicineSplitCroatia
  5. 5.Department of Medical Biochemistry and Hematology, Faculty of Pharmacy and BiochemistryUniversity of ZagrebZagrebCroatia
  6. 6.Centre for Research in Social Inequalities and SustainabilityInstitute for Social Research in ZagrebZagrebCroatia

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