International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 61, Supplement 1, pp 115–125 | Cite as

Past, present and future of the climate and human health commission

  • Pablo Fdez-Arroyabe
  • Daysarih Tápanes Robau
Special Issue: IJB 60th anniversary (invited only)


The following paper presents the history of the Climate and Human Health Commission at the International Society of Biometeorology after more than one decade since its creation. A brief history of the origins of the human biometeorology is revealed through some of the main research topics and publications of the founders of the society in this field. Secondly, it is presented as a brief review of the activities of the commission in the last 10 years, based on the reports that have periodically been submitted by members of the commission to the Bulletin of the society. A summary of the topics of interest on human biometeorology and the most frequent research topics are also described. Thirdly, the need of adapting human biometeorology contents, methods and techniques to a changing world is articulated according to some of the new environmental threats in the XXI century. Finally, a list of future actions and research lines collected through a form from members of the commission is presented. The paper concludes with the existence of great challenge for human biometeorology in order to transform biometeorological knowledge into specific services to improve the wellbeing of human beings.


Biometeorology Global change Biophysics Climate services Thermal comfort Early warning systems 



I would like to dedicate this paper to one of our most outstanding members in the ISB-CHC, Prof. Christopher Rhodes de Freitas who sadly passed away in July 11, 2017. His excellent scientific work in the field of human biometeorology will stay as a permanent reference and inspiration to us all.

The extraordinary help that the Tromp Foundation has offered to the ISB and to the CHC during many years must be acknowledged. I would like to thank Dr. Athanasios Damialis; Dr. Scott Sheridan; Dr. Fabio Luis Teixeira Gonçalves; Dr. Simone Orlandini; Dr. Alessandro Pezzoli, Dr. Barbara Shumann, Dr. David Hondula and Elena Grigorieva for the submission of the CHC forms to produce this article.


  1. Al-Taiar A, Thalib L (2014) Short-term effect of dust storms on the risk of mortality due to respiratory, cardiovascular and all-causes in Kuwait. Int J Biometeorol 58:69–77. doi: 10.1007/s00484-012-0626-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ardalan A, Naieni KH, Kabir MJ, Zanganeh AM, Keshtkar AA, Honarvar MR, Khodaie H, Mehdi O (2009) Evaluation of Golestan Province’s early warning system for flash floods, Iran, 2006–7. Int J Biometeorol 53:247–254. doi: 10.1007/s00484-009-0210-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bateson TF, Schwartz J (2004) Who is sensitive to the effects of particulate air pollution on mortality?: a case-crossover analysis of effect modifiers. Epidemiology 15:143–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beggs P (2014) Climate change and biometeorology, the International Society of Biometeorology and its journal: a perspective on the past and a framework for the future. Int J Biometeorol 58:1–6. doi: 10.1007/s00484-013-0696-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bulbena A, Sperry L, Pailhez G, Cunillera J (2007) Panic attacks: weather and season sensitivity? Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 61:129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cannon WB (1929) Organization for physiological homeostasis. Physiol Rev 9:399–431Google Scholar
  7. Cannon WB (1932) The wisdom of the body. WW Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  8. Chau PH, Chan KC, Woo J (2009) Hot weather warning might help to reduce elderly mortality in Hong Kong. Int J Biometeorol 53:461–468. doi: 10.1007/s00484-009-0232-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Damialis A, Mohammad AB, Halley JM, Gange AC (2015) Fungi in a changing world: growth rates may be elevated, but spore production will decrease in future climates. Int J Biometeorol 59:1157–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. De’Donato FK, Stafoggia M, Rognoni M, Poncino S, Caranci N, Bisanti L, Demaria M, Forastiere F, Michelozzi P, Pelosini R, Perucci CA (2008) Airport and city-centre temperatures in the evaluation of the association between heat and mortality. Int J Biometeorol 52:301–310. doi: 10.1007/s00484-007-0124-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Didyk LA, Gorgo YP, Dirckx JJ, Bogdanov VB, Buytaert JAN, Lysenko VA, Didyk NP, Vershygora AV, Erygina VT (2008) Atmospheric pressure fluctuations in the far infrasound range and emergency transport events coded as circulatory system diseases. Int J Biometeorol 52:553–561. doi: 10.1007/s00484-008-0163-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dixon PG, Kalstein AJ (2009) Climate-suicide relationship: a research problem in need of geographic methods and cross-disciplinary perspectives. Geography Compass 3(6):1961–1974. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-8198.2009.00286 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dixon PG, Kalstein AJ (2016) Where are weather-suicide associations valid? An examination of nine US counties with varying seasonality. Int J Biometeorol 2016. doi: 10.1007/s00484-016-1265-1
  14. Dominici F, Peng RD, Bell ML, Pham L, McDermott A, Zeger SL, Samet JM (2006) Fine particulate air pollution and hospital admission for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. JAMA 295:1127–1134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Draper G, Dupertuis CW (1939) The nature of the human factor in infantile paralysis. J Clin Invest 18:87–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ebi KL, Burton I, McGregor, G (2009) Biometeorology, Volume 1, (2009) Biometeorology for Adaptation to Climate Variability and Change. ISBN: 978-1- 4020-8920-6. (Print) 978-1-4020-8921-3Google Scholar
  17. Eysenck SBG (1956) An experimental study of psychogalvanic reflex responses of normal, neurotic and psychotic subjects. J Psychosom Res I 258–272Google Scholar
  18. Fdez-Arroyabe P (2013) Climate services and human health: a niche of opportunities for economic growth. Scientific Annals of Alexandru Ioan Cuza. Geography Series 59(2):135–152 (on line versión) 329 2284-6379 eISNNGoogle Scholar
  19. Fdez-Arroyabe P (2015) Climate change, local weather and customized early warning systems based on biometeorological indexes. Journal of Earth Science and Engineering 5:173–181 David publishing. doi: 10.17265/2159-581X/2015.03.002 Google Scholar
  20. Fdez-Arroyabe P, Roye D. (2017) In book Bhatt, C.; Dey, N. & Ashour, A. S. (Ed.) Co-creation and participatory design of big data infrastructures on the field of human health related climate services. Internet of things and big data technologies for next generation healthcare, Springer International Publishing, 2017, 199–226Google Scholar
  21. Fiala D, Lomas KJ, Stohrer M (1999) A computer model of human thermoregulation for a wide range of environmental conditions: the passive system. J Appl Physiol 87(5):1957–1972Google Scholar
  22. Fiala D, Lomas KJ, Stohrer M (2001) Computer prediction of human thermoregulatory and temperature responses to a wide range of environmental conditions. Int J Biometeorol 45:143–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Fiala D, Lomas KJ, Stohrer M (2003) First principles modeling of thermal sensation responses in steady-state and transient conditions. ASHRAE Trans: Res 109(Part I):179–186Google Scholar
  24. Fiala D, Lomas KJ, Stohrer M (2007) Dynamic simulation of human heat transfer and thermal comfort. In: Mekjavic IB, Kounalakis SN, Taylor NAS (eds) Environmental ergonomics XII. Biomed, Ljubljana, pp 513–515Google Scholar
  25. Frei T, Gassner E (2008) Trends in prevalence of allergic rhinitis and correlation with pollen counts in Switzerland. Int J Biometeorol 52:841–847. doi: 10.1007/s00484-008-0178-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Glinianaia SV, Rankin J, Bell R, Pless-Mulloli T, Howel D (2004) Particulate air pollution and fetal health a systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Epidemiology 15:36–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. González-Flecha B (2004) Oxidant mechanisms in response to ambient air particles. Mol Asp Med 25:169–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Gosling SN, Bryce EK, Dixon PG et al (2014) A glossary for biometeorology. Int J Biometeorol 58:277. doi: 10.1007/s00484-013-0729-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Greene JS, Kalkstein LS, Kim KR, Choi YJ, Lee DG (2016) The application of the European heat wave of 2003 to Korean cities to analyze impacts on heat-related mortality. Int J Biometeorol 60(2):231–243. doi: 10.1007/s00484-015-1020-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gyan K, Henry W, Lacaille S, Laloo A, Lamsee-Ebanks C, McKay S, Antoine RM, Monteil MA (2005) African dust clouds are associated with increased paediatric asthma accident and emergency admissions on the Caribbean island of Trinidad. Int J Biometeorol 49:371–376. doi: 10.1007/s00484-005-0257-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hondula DM, Davis RE, Knight DB, Sitka L, Enfield K, Gawtry SB, Stenger PJ, Deaton ML, Normile CP, Lee TR (2012) A respiratory alert model for the Shenandoah Valley, Virginia, USA. Int J Biometeorol 57:91–105. doi: 10.1007/s00484-012-0537-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hondula DM, Vanos JK, Gosling SN (2013) The SSC: a decade of climate-health research and future directions. Int J Biometeorol (Students/New Professionals Issue). doi: 10.1007/s00484-012-0619-6
  33. Höppe P (1977) Aspects of human biometeorology in past, present and future. Int J Biometeorol 40:19–23. doi: 10.1007/BF02439406 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jendritzky G, de Dear R (2009) Adaptation and thermal environment. In: Ebi KL, Burton I, McGregor GR (eds) Biometeorology for adaptation to climate variability and change. Biometeorology 1. Springer, Berlin, pp 9–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jendritzky G, Nübler W (1981) A model analysing the urban thermal environment in physiologically significant terms. Arch Met Geoph Biokl B 29(4):313–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jendritzky G, de Dear R, Havenith G (2012) UCTI—why another thermal index? Int J Biometeorol 56:421. doi: 10.1007/s00484-011-0513-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Kalkstein LS (2000) Biometeorology—looking at the links between weather, climate and health (a speech given to the executive council of the WMO, May 25, 2000). ISB - Biometeorol Bull 5(1):9–18Google Scholar
  38. Kalkstein LS (2008) A summary of happenings at the international congress of biometeorology. Int J Biometeorol 52:881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Kalkstein LS (2011) Activities of the synoptic climatology laboratory. Biom Bull 14:8–10Google Scholar
  40. Kalkstein AJ, Sheridan SC (2007) The social impacts of the heat-health watch/warning system in Phoenix. Arizona: assessing the perceived risk and response of the public. Int J Biometeorol 52:43–55. doi: 10.1007/s00484-006-0073-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kovats RS, Edwards SJ, Charron D, Cowden J, D’Souza RM, Kl E, Gauci C, Gerner-Smidt P, Hajat S, Hales S, Hernández Pezzi G, Kriz B, Kutsar K, McKeown P, Mellou K, Menne B, O’Brien S, van Pelt W, Schmid H (2005) Climate variability and campylobacter infection: an international study. Int J Biometeorol 49:207–214. doi: 10.1007/s00484-004-0241-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Krueger AP, Smith RF (1958) Effects of air-ions on the living mammalian trachea. J Gen Physiol 42:69–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Krueger AP, Andriese PC, Kotaka S (1963) The biological mechanism of air ion action. The effect of C02+ in inhaled air on the blood level of 5-hydroxytryptamine in mice. Int J Biometeor 7:3–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Lai LW (2016) Public health risks of prolonged fine particle events associated with stagnation and air quality index based on fine particle matter with a diameter <2.5 μm in the Kaoping region of Taiwan. Int J Biometeorol 60:1907–1917. doi: 10.1007/s00484-016-1177-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Larson U (1990) The effects of monthly temperature fluctuations on mortality in the United States from 1921-1985. Int J Biometeorol 34(3):136–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lecha L, Delgado T. (1996) On a regional health watch and system. In: proceedings of the 14th Int. Congress of Biometeorology, Ljubljana, Slovenia; part 2, Vol. 3; 94–107Google Scholar
  47. Lecha L, Ortiz PL, Moya A, Estrada A. (2008) A new world wide web for the public diffusion of biometeorological and bioclimatic forecasts. In XVIII ISB Congress, Tokyo, Japan; Hum2-P09Google Scholar
  48. Li Y, Wang W, Wang J, Zhang X, Lin W, Yang Y (2011) Impact of air pollution control measures and weather conditions on asthma during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing. Int J Biometeorol 55:547–554. doi: 10.1007/s00484-010-0373-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Liu IF, Chang SL, Lo LW, Hu YF, Tuan TCH, Kong CW, Wu TJ, Chiang CE, Chen SA, Lin YJ (2011) Relationship between temperature change and the requirement for a permanent pacemaker implantation in bradyarrhythmias. Int J Biometeorol 55:733–739. doi: 10.1007/s00484-010-0388-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mäkinen TM, Raatikka VP, Rytkönen M, Jokelainen J, Rintamäki H, Ruuhela R, Näyhä S, Hassi J (2006) Factors affecting outdoor exposure in winter: population-based study. Int J Biometeorol 51:27–36. doi: 10.1007/s00484-006-0040-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Makra L, Puskás J, Matyasovszky I, Csépe Z, Lelovics E, Bálint B, Tusnády G (2015) Weather elements, chemical air pollutants and airborne pollen influencing asthma emergency room visits in Szeged, Hungary: performance of two objective weather classifications. Int J Biometeorol 59:1269–1289. doi: 10.1007/s00484-014-0938-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Maloney SK, Forbes CF (2011) What effect will a few degrees of climate change have on human heat balance? Implications for human activity. Int J Biometeorol 55:147–160. doi: 10.1007/s00484-010-0320-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Matzarakis A, Mayer H, Iziomon M (1999) Applications of a universal thermal index: physiological equivalent temperature. Int J Biometeorol 43:76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Matzarakis A, Rutz F, Mayer H (2007) Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments -application of the RayMan model. Int J Biometeorol 51:323–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mayer H, Höppe PR (1987) Thermal comfort of man in different urban environments. Theor Appl Climatol 38:43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. McGregor GL (2011) Human biometeorology. Prog Phys Geogr 36(1):93–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Monteil MA, Antoine R (2009) African dust and asthma in the Caribbean: medical and statistical perspectives. Int J Biometeorol 53:379–381. doi: 10.1007/s00484-009-0252-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Morabito M, Pavlinic DZ, Crisci A, Capecchi V, Orlandini S, Mekjavic IB (2011) Determining optimal clothing ensembles based on weather forecasts, with particular reference to outdoor winter military activities. Int J Biometeorol 55:481–490. doi: 10.1007/s00484-010-0357-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Morabito M, Profili F, Crisci A, Francesconi P, Gensini GF, Orlandini S (2012) Heat related mortality in the Florentine area (Italy) before and after the exceptional 2003 heat wave in Europe: an improved public health response? Int J Biometeorol 56:801–810. doi: 10.1007/s00484-011-0481-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Morin CW, Comrie AC (2010) Modeled response of the West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus to changing climate using the dynamic mosquito simulation model. Int J Biometeorol 54:517–529. doi: 10.1007/s00484-010-0349-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Munir A, Takada S, Matsushita T, Kubo H (2010) Prediction of human thermo-physiological responses during shower bathing. Int J Biometeorol 54:165–178. doi: 10.1007/s00484-009-0265-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Nakai S, Itoh T, Morimoto T (1999) Deaths from heat-stroke in Japan: 1968-1994. Int J Biometeorol 43(3):124–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nastos PT, Matzarakis A (2006) Weather impacts on respiratory infections in Athens, Greece. Int J Biometeorol 50:358–369. doi: 10.1007/s00484-006-0031-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nicholls N, Skinner C, Loughnan M, Tapper N (2008) A simple heat alert system for Melbourne, Australia. Int J Biometeorol 52:375–384. doi: 10.1007/s00484-007-0132-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Njuguna J, Muita J, Mundia G (2009) Malaria morbidity and temperature variation in a low risk Kenyan district: a case of overdiagnosis? Int J Biometeorol 53:299–304. doi: 10.1007/s00484-009-0216-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nückel H (1957) Aerosol-therapie. Grundlagen und Anwendung. Friedrich Karl Schattauer Verlag, Stuttgart, pp 120–262Google Scholar
  67. O’Neill MS, Hajat S, Zanobetti A, Ramirez-Aguilar M, Schwartz J (2005) Impact of control for air pollution and respiratory epidemics on the estimated associations of temperature and daily mortality. Int J Biometeorol 50:121–129. doi: 10.1007/s00484-005-0269-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Pandey J, Grandner M, Crittenden C, Smith MT, Perlis ML (2005) Meteorologic factors and subjective sleep continuity: a preliminary evaluation. Int J Biometeorol 49:152–155. doi: 10.1007/s00484-004-0227-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Pascal M, Laaidi K, Ledrans M, Baffert E, Caserio-Schönemann C, Le Tertre A, Manach J, Medina S, Rudant J, Empereur-Bissonnet P (2006) France’s heat health watch warning system. Int J Biometeorol 50:144–153. doi: 10.1007/s00484-005-0003-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Raatikka VP, Rytkönen M, Näyhä S, Hassi J (2007) Prevalence of cold-related complaints, symptoms and injuries in the general population: the FINRISK 2002 cold substudy. Int J Biometeorol 51:441–448. doi: 10.1007/s00484-006-0076-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Ren C, Tong S (2006) Temperature modifies the health effects of particulate matter in Brisbane, Australia. Int J Biometeorol 51:87–96. doi: 10.1007/s00484-006-0054-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Rosenfelder M, Koppe C, Pfafferott J, Matzarakis A (2016) Effects of ventilation behaviour on indoor heat load based on test reference years. Int J Biometeorol 60:277–287. doi: 10.1007/s00484-015-1024-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Ruuhela R, Hiltunen L, Venäläinen A, Pirinen P, Partonen T (2009) Climate impact on suicide rates in Finland from 1971 to 2003. Int J Biometeorol 53:167–175. doi: 10.1007/s00484-008-0200-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Schneider A, Schuh A, Maetzel FK, Rückerl R, Breitner S, Peters A (2008) Weather-induced ischemia and arrhythmia in patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation: another difference between men and women. Int J Biometeorol 52:535–547. doi: 10.1007/s00484-008-0144-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Scott D, de Freitas C, Matzarakis A (2009) Biometeorology for adaptation to climate variability and change. Volume 1 of the series biometeorology pp 171–194. Adaptation in the Tourism and Recreation SectorGoogle Scholar
  76. Seltzer C (1940) Body build and oxygen metabolism at rest and during exercise. Am J Phys 129:1–15Google Scholar
  77. Sheridan SC (2007) A survey of public perception and response to heat warnings across four north American cities: an evaluation of municipal effectiveness. Int J Biometeorol 52(1):3–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Sheridan SC, Kalkstein LS and Scott JM. (2000). An evaluation of the variability of air mass character between urban and rural areas. In Biometeorology and Urban Climatology at the Turn of the Millennium, World Meteorological Organization, 487–490Google Scholar
  79. Smoyer KE (1998) A comparative analysis of heat waves and associated mortality in St. Louis, Missouri—1980 and 1995. Int J Biometeorol 42:44–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Smoyer KE, Rainham DGC, Hewko JN (2000) Heat-stress-related mortality in five cities in southern Ontario: 1980-1996. Int J Biometeorol 44:190–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Styra D, Usovaite A, Damauskaite J, Juozulynas A (2009) Leaps in cardiovascular diseases after a decrease of hard cosmic ray flux and atmospheric pressure in Vilnius city in 2004–2007. Int J Biometeorol 53:471–477. doi: 10.1007/s00484-009-0234-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sujaritpong S, Dear K, Cope M, Walsh S, Kjellstrom T (2014) Quantifying the health impacts of air pollution under a changing climate a review of approaches and methodology. Int J Biometeorol 58:149–160. doi: 10.1007/s00484-012-0625-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Suminski RR, Poston WC, Market P, Hyder M, Sara PA (2008) Meteorological conditions are associated with physical activities performed in open-air settings. Int J Biometeorol 52:189–197. doi: 10.1007/s00484-007-0110-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Tan J, Kalkstein LS, Huang J, Lin S, Yin H, Shao D (2003) An operational heat/health warning system in Shanghai. Int J Biometeorol 48:157–162CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Tan J, Zheng Y, Song G, Kalkstein LS, Kalkstein A, Tang X (2007) Heat wave impacts on mortality in Shanghai: 1998 to 2003. Int J Biometeorol 51:193–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Theron PA (1948) Peripheral vasomotor reactions as indices of basic emotional tension and ability. Psychosom Med 10:335–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Tong S, Soskolne CL (2005) Global environmental change and population health: progress and challenges. EcoHealth 4(3):352–362. doi: 10.1007/s10393-007-0125-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Tromp SW (1959) Biometeorological analysis of daily and monthly variations in restlessness and ill temperedness of mental patients in the Western part of the Netherlands (period 1 nov. 1956/21 dec. 1958). Monograph Biometeorological Res. Centre, Leiden, The Netherlands, 5Google Scholar
  89. Tromp SW (1962) Biometeorological analysis of the frequency and degree of asthma attacks in the Western part of The Netherlands (period 1953–1960). Biometeorology, Tromp SW (ed.). Proc. 2nd Int.Bioclim. Congress, London, Sept. 1960. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 477–483Google Scholar
  90. Tromp SW (1963) Human biometeorology. Int J Biometeorol 7(2):145–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Vanos JK (2015) Children’s health and vulnerability in outdoor microclimates: a comprehensive review. Environ Int 76:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Vanos JK, Hebbern C, Cakmak S (2014) Risk assessment for cardiovascular and respiratory mortality due to air pollution and synoptic meteorology in 10 Canadian cities. Environ Pollut 185:322–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Vigotti MA, Muggeo V, Cusimano R (2006) The effect of birthplace on heat tolerance and mortality in Milan, Italy, 1980–1989. Int J Biometeorol 50:335–341. doi: 10.1007/s00484-006-0035-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wanka ER, Bayerstadler A, Heumann C, Nowak D, Jörres RA, Fischer R (2014) Weather and air pollutants have an impact on patients with respiratory diseases and breathing difficulties in Munich, Germany. Int J Biometeorol 58:249–262. doi: 10.1007/s00484-013-0730-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wijayanto T, Wakabayashi H, Lee JY, Hashiguchi N, Saat M, Tochihara Y (2011) Comparison of thermoregulatory responses to heat between Malaysian and Japanese males during leg immersion. Int J Biometeorol 55:491–500. doi: 10.1007/s00484-010-0358-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Geography Department, Geobiomet Research GroupUniversity of CantabriaSantanderSpain

Personalised recommendations