International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 59, Issue 1, pp 109–120 | Cite as

A comprehensive catalogue and classification of human thermal climate indices

  • C. R. de Freitas
  • E. A. Grigorieva
Short Communication


The very large number of human thermal climate indices that have been proposed over the past 100 years or so is a manifestation of the perceived importance within the scientific community of the thermal environment and the desire to quantify it. Schemes used differ in approach according to the number of variables taken into account, the rationale employed, the relative sophistication of the underlying body–atmosphere heat exchange theory and the particular design for application. They also vary considerably in type and quality, as well as in several other aspects. Reviews appear in the literature, but they cover a limited number of indices. A project that produces a comprehensive documentation, classification and overall evaluation of the full range of existing human thermal climate indices has never been attempted. This paper deals with documentation and classification. A subsequent report will focus on evaluation. Here a comprehensive register of 162 thermal indices is assembled and a sorting scheme devised that groups them according to eight primary classification classes. It is the first stage in a project to organise and evaluate the full range of all human thermal climate indices. The work, when completed, will make it easier for users to reflect on the merits of all available thermal indices. It will be simpler to locate and compare indices and decide which is most appropriate for a particular application or investigation.


Thermal indices Human climate assessment Index classification 



This work was supported in part by the Fulbright Program.


  1. Adamenko VN, Khairullin KS (1972) Evaluation of conditions under which unprotected parts of the human body may freeze in urban air during winter. Bound Layer Meteor 2:510–518Google Scholar
  2. Afanasieva R (1977) Hygienic theory of cold protection clothes projection. Legkaya Industriya, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  3. Afanasieva R, Bobrov A, Sokolov S (2009) Cold assessment criteria and prediction of cooling risk in humans: the Russian perspective. Ind Health 47(3):235–241Google Scholar
  4. Aizenshtat BA (1964) Methods for assessment of some bioclimate indices. Meteorol Hydrol 12:9–16 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  5. Aizenshtat LB, Aizenshtat BA (1974) Equation for equivalent-effective temperature. Questions of biometeorology. Hydrometeoizdat, Leningrad, pp 81–83 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. Akimovich NN, Balalla OA (1971) Sultry weathers at the south of Primorye and their influence on human body. Izvestia ASc USSR Geogr 4:94–100 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  7. Arnoldy IA (1962) Acclimatization of the man in north and south. Medgiz, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  8. ASHRAE (1981) ASHRAE handbook of fundamentals. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers Inc, AtlantaGoogle Scholar
  9. Auliciems A, Kalma JD (1981) Human thermal climates of Australia. Aust Geogr Stud 19(1):3–24Google Scholar
  10. Auliciems A, Szokolay SV (2007) Thermal comfort. Qld.: PLEA in association with Dept. of Architecture, University of Queensland, 1997, BrisbaneGoogle Scholar
  11. Becker S (2000) Bioclimatological rating of cities and resorts in South Africa according to the Climate Index. Int J Climatol 20:1403–1414Google Scholar
  12. Bedford T (1936) Warmth factor in comfort at work. Med Res Council, Industrial Health Research Board, report no. 76Google Scholar
  13. Bedford T (1951) Equivalent temperature, what it is, how it's measured. Heat Pip Air Condit 8:87–91Google Scholar
  14. Bedford T (1961) Researches on thermal comfort. The society's lecture given at Bristol, 17 April. Ergonomics 4(4):289–310Google Scholar
  15. Bedford T (1964) Basic principles of ventilation and heating, 2nd edn. Lewis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  16. Bedford T, Warner CD (1934) The globe thermometer in studies of heating and ventilation. J Hyg (Lond) 34(4):458–473Google Scholar
  17. Belding HS, Hatch TF (1955) Index for evaluating heat stress in terms of resulting physiological strain. Heat Pip Air Condit 27:129–136Google Scholar
  18. Belkin VS (1992) Biomedical aspects of the development of mountain regions: case-study for the Gorno-Badakhshan autonomic region, Tajikistan. J Mount Res Dev 12:63–70Google Scholar
  19. Beshir MY, Ramsey JD (1988) Heat stress indices: a review paper. Int J Indust Ergon 3:89–102Google Scholar
  20. Bidlot R, Ledent P (1947) Travail dans les milieux a haute temperature. Que savons-nous des limites de temperature humainement supportables? Institute d’Hygiene des Mines, HasseltGoogle Scholar
  21. Blazejczyk K (2005) New indices to assess thermal risks outdoors. In: Holmér I, Kuklane K, Gao C (eds) Environmental Ergonomics XI. Proc. Of the 11th International Conference, 22–26 May, 2005 Ystat, Sweden, pp 222–225Google Scholar
  22. Blazejczyk K (2006) MENEX_2005—the updated version of man–environment heat exchange model (manuscript). COST Action 730 archive.
  23. Blazejczyk K (2011) Assessment of regional bioclimatic contrasts in Poland. Miscellanea Geographica 15(1):79–91Google Scholar
  24. Blazejczyk K, Matzarakis A (2007) Assessment of bioclimatic differentiation of Poland based on the human heat balance. Geogr Pol 80:63–82Google Scholar
  25. Blazejczyk K, Holmer I, Nilsson H (1998) Absorption of solar radiation by an ellipsoid sensor simulated the human body. Appl Human Sci 17(6):267–273Google Scholar
  26. Blazejczyk K, Epstein Y, Jendritzky G, Staiger H, Tinz B (2012) Comparison of UTCI to selected thermal indices. Int J Biometeorol 56(3):515–535Google Scholar
  27. Bodman G (1908) Das Klima als eine Funktion von Temperatur und Windgeschwindigkeit in ihrer Verbindung: Lithogr. Institut des Generalstabs, StockholmGoogle Scholar
  28. Bogatkin OG (2006) Meteorological index of health and economic possibilities of its application. Proceedings of the International conference “Weather and Biosystems” St.-PetersburgGoogle Scholar
  29. Botsford JH (1971) A wet globe thermometer for environmental heat measurement. Am Indust Hyg Assoc J 32:1–10Google Scholar
  30. Brake D, Bates G (2002a) A valid method for comparing rational and empirical heat stress indices. Ann Occup Hyg 46(2):165–174Google Scholar
  31. Brake D, Bates G (2002b) Limiting metabolic rate (thermal work limit) as an index of thermal stress. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 17(3):176–186Google Scholar
  32. Brauner N, Shacham M (1995) Meaningful wind chill indicators derived from heat transfer principles. Int J Biometeorol 39:46–52Google Scholar
  33. Broughton V (2001) Faceted classification as a basis for knowledge organization in a digital environment; the Bliss Bibliographic Classification as a model for vocabulary management and the creation of multidimensional knowledge structures. New Review of Hypermedia Multimedia 7(1):67–102Google Scholar
  34. Brown RD, Gillespie TJ (1986) Estimating outdoor thermal comfort using a cylindrical radiation thermometer and an energy budget model. Int J Biometeor 30:43–52Google Scholar
  35. Bruce JL (1916) Vortrag. Roy Soc NSW (public health section) 14.11.1916Google Scholar
  36. Brüner H (1959) Arbeitsmöglichkeiten unter Tage bei erschwerten Klimatischen Bedingungen. Int Z Angew Physiol Einschl Arbeitsphysiol 18:31–61Google Scholar
  37. Budyko M, Cicenko V (1960) Climatic factors of human thermal sensation. Izv AS USSR Ser Geogr 3:3–11 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  38. Bureau of Indian Standards (1987) Handbook of functional requirements of buildings (other than industrial buildings). New Delhi, SP:41Google Scholar
  39. Burton A, Edholm O (1955) Man in cold environment: physiological and pathological effects of exposure to low temperatures. Arnold, LondonGoogle Scholar
  40. Cadarette BS, Montain SJ, Kolka MA, Stroschein L, Matthew W, Sawka MN (1999) Cross validation of USARIEM heat strain prediction models. U.S. ARMY Research Institute of Environmental Medicine. Aviat Space Environ Med 70(10):996–1006Google Scholar
  41. Carlucci S, Pagliano L (2012) A review of indices for the long-term evaluation of the general thermal comfort conditions in buildings. Energy Build 53:194–205. doi: 10.1016/j.enbuild.2012.06.015 Google Scholar
  42. d'Ambrosio Alfano FR, Palella BI, Riccio G (2011) Thermal environment assessment reliability using temperature–humidity indices. Indust Health 49(1):95–106Google Scholar
  43. Dasler AR (1977) Heat stress, work function and physiological heat exposure limits in man. In: Thermal analysis—human comfort–indoor environments. National Bureau of Standards, Washington, DC.
  44. Dayal D (1974) An index for assessing heat stress in terms of physiological strain. Ph.D. thesis, Texas Tech UniversityGoogle Scholar
  45. De Freitas CR (1985) Assessment of human bioclimate based on thermal response. Int J Biometeorol 29:97–119Google Scholar
  46. De Freitas CR (1986) Human thermal climates of New Zealand. New Zealand Meteorological Service, Misk Publ, 190, WellingtonGoogle Scholar
  47. De Freitas CR (1987) Bioclimates of heat and cold stress in New Zealand. Weather Clim 7:55–60Google Scholar
  48. De Freitas CR, Grigorieva E (2009) The Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI): a preliminary study of the methodology applied to climatic conditions of the Russian Far East. Int J Biometeorol 53:307–315Google Scholar
  49. De Freitas CR, Ryken MG (1989) Climate and physiological heat strain during exercise. Int J Biometeorol 33:157–164Google Scholar
  50. De Freitas CR, Symon L (1987) A bioclimatic index of human survival time in the Antarctic. Polar Rec 23:651–659Google Scholar
  51. De Paula Xavier AA, Lamberts R (2000) Indices of thermal comfort developed from field survey in Brazil. ASHRAE Trans 106:45–58Google Scholar
  52. Dorno C (1928) Die Abkühlungsgrösse in verschiedenen Klimaten nach Dauerregistrierungen mittels des Davoser Frigorimeters. Meteorol Zeitschr 45:401–421Google Scholar
  53. Dufton AF (1929) The eupatheostat. J Sci Instrum 6:249–251Google Scholar
  54. Eissing G (1995) Climate assessment indices. Ergonomics 38(1):47–57Google Scholar
  55. Epstein Y, Moran DS (2006) Thermal comfort and heat stress indices. Indust Health 44:388–398Google Scholar
  56. Falconer R (1968) Windchill, a useful wintertime weather variable. Weather 21:227–229Google Scholar
  57. Fanger PO (1970) Thermal comfort: analysis and applications in environmental engineering. Danish Technical, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  58. Fanger PO, Melikov AK, Hanzawa H, Ring J (1988) Air turbulence and sensation of draught. Energy Build 12(1):21–39Google Scholar
  59. Flügge C (1912) Akten des Kgl. Oberbergamtes zu Halle/Sa. XXVa, 36-1, 13248/05; 18583/05Google Scholar
  60. Fourt J, Hollies NRS (1970) Clothing: comfort and function. Dekker, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  61. Fox RH (1965) Heat. In: Edholm OG, Bacharach AL (eds) Physiology of human survival. Academic, London, pp 53–80Google Scholar
  62. Frank A, Moran D, Epstein Y, Belokopytov M, Shapiro Y (1996) The estimation of heat tolerance by a new cumulative heat strain index. In: Shapiro Y, Moran D, Epstein Y (eds) Environmental ergonomics: recent progress and new frontiers. Tel Aviv, Freund, pp 194–197Google Scholar
  63. Gagge AP (1941) Standard operative temperature, a single measure of the combined effect of radiant temperature, of ambient temperature and of air movement on the human body. In: Temperature, its measurement and control in science and industry. Reinhold, New York, pp 544–552Google Scholar
  64. Gagge AP, Stolwijk JAJ, Nishi Y (1971) An effective temperature scale based on a simple model of human physiological temperature response. ASHRAE Trans 72:247–262Google Scholar
  65. Gagge AP, Fobelts AP, Berglund LG (1986) A standard predictive index of human response to the thermal environment. ASHRAE Trans 92:709–731Google Scholar
  66. Gallagher M Jr, Robertson RJ, Goss FL, Nagle-Stilley EF, Schafer MA, Suyama J, Hostler D (2012) Development of a perceptual hyperthermia index to evaluate heat strain during treadmill exercise. Europ J Appl Physiol 112(6):2025–2034Google Scholar
  67. Givoni B (1969) Man, climate and architecture. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  68. Givoni B, Goldman RF (1972) Predicting rectal temperature response to work, environment and clothing. J Appl Physiol 32:812–822Google Scholar
  69. Givoni B, Goldman RF (1973a) Predicting heart rate response to work, environment, and clothing. J Appl Physiol 34:201–204Google Scholar
  70. Givoni B, Goldman RF (1973b) Predicting effects of heat acclimatization on heart rate and rectal temperature. J Appl Physiol 35:875–879Google Scholar
  71. Givoni B, Noguchi M, Saaroni H, Pochter O, Yaacov Y, Feller N, Becker S (2003) Outdoor comfort research issues. Energy Build 35:77–86Google Scholar
  72. Gonzalez RR, Nishi Y, Gagge AP (1974) Experimental evaluation of standard effective temperature: a new biometeorological index of man's thermal discomfort. Int J Biometeorol 18(1):1–15Google Scholar
  73. Gonzalez RR, Bergulnd LG, Gagge AP (1978) Indices of thermoregulatory strain for moderate exercise in the heat. J Appl Physiol 44:889–899Google Scholar
  74. Graveling RA, Morris LA, Graves RJ (1988) Working in hot conditions in mining: a literature review. Historical research report. Research report TM/88/13. Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh, ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  75. Gregorczuk M (1968) Bioclimates of the world related to air enthalpy. Int J Biometeorol 12:33–39Google Scholar
  76. Gregorczuk M, Cena K (1967) Distribution of effective temperature over the surface of the earth. Int J Biometeorol 2:145–149Google Scholar
  77. Haldane JBS (1905) The influence of high air temperatures. J Hygiene 5:494–513Google Scholar
  78. Hall JF, Polte JW (1960) Physiological index of strain and body heat storage in hyperthermia. J Appl Physiol 15:1027–1030Google Scholar
  79. Hamdi M, Lachiver G, Michaud F (1999) A new predictive thermal sensation index of human response. Energy Build 29:167–178Google Scholar
  80. Hevener OF (1959) All about humiture. Weather 12:83–85Google Scholar
  81. Hill L, Hargood-Ash D (1919) On the cooling and evaporative powers of the atmosphere, as determined by the kata-thermometer. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 90:438–447Google Scholar
  82. Hill L, Griffith OW, Flack M (1916) The measurement of the rate of heat loss at body temperature by convection, radiation and evaporation. Physiol Trans R Soc B 207:183–220Google Scholar
  83. Holmer I (1984) Required clothing insulation (IREQ) as an analytical index of cold stress. ASHRAE Trans 90:1116–1128Google Scholar
  84. Holmer I (1988) Assessing of cold stress in terms of required clothing insulation IREQ. Int J Indust Ergon 3:159–166Google Scholar
  85. Holmer I (1993) Work in the cold. Review of methods for assessment of cold exposure. Int Arch Occup Environ Health 65(3):147–155Google Scholar
  86. Hori S (1978) Index for the assessment of heat tolerance. J Human Ergol (Tokyo) 7:135–144Google Scholar
  87. Houghten FC, Yagloglou CP (1923) Determining lines of equal comfort. J Am Soc Heat Vent Eng 29:165–176Google Scholar
  88. Hubac M, Strelka F, Borsky I, Hubacova L (1989) Application of the relative summary climatic indices during work in heat for ergonomic purposes. Ergonomics 32(7):733–750Google Scholar
  89. Ionides M, Plummer J, Siple PA (1945) The thermal acceptance ratio. Report from climatology and environmental protection section. United States: Office of the US Quartermaster General (Interim report no 17)Google Scholar
  90. Isaev AA (2003) Ecological climatology. Nauchnyi Mir, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  91. Jendritzky G, Nübler W (1981) A model analysing the urban thermal environment in physiologically significant terms. Arch Met Geoph Biokl Ser B 29:313–326Google Scholar
  92. Jendritzky G, Staiger H, Bucher K, Graetz A, Laschewski G. (2000) The perceived temperature—the method of the Deutscher Wetterdienst for the assessment of cold stress and heat load for the human body. In: Internet Workshop on Windchill, hosted by Environment Canada, April 3–7, 2000; available at
  93. Jendritzky G, Havenith G, Weihs P, Batchvarova E (2009) Towards a Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI for assessing the thermal environment of the human being. Final Report COST Action 730, FreiburgGoogle Scholar
  94. Jendritzky G, de Dear R, Havenith G (2012) UTCI—why another thermal index? Int J Biometeorol 56(3):421–428Google Scholar
  95. Jokl MV (1982) Standard layers—a new criterion of the thermal insulating properties of clothing. Int J Biometeorol 26:37–48Google Scholar
  96. Kalkstein LS, Valimont KM (1986) An evaluation of summer discomfort in the United States using a relative climatological index. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 67:842–848Google Scholar
  97. Kalkstein LS, Valimont KM (1987) An evaluation of winter weather severity in the United States using the weather stress index. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 68:1535–1540Google Scholar
  98. Kalkstein LS, Nichols MC, Barthel CD, Greene JS (1996) A new spatial synoptic classification: application to air mass analysis. Int J Climatol 16(8):983–1004Google Scholar
  99. Kamon E, Ryan C (1981) Effective heat strain index using pocket computer. Am Indust Hyg Assoc J 42:611–615Google Scholar
  100. Kawamura W (1965) Distribution of discomfort index in Japan in summer season. J Met Res 17(7):460–466Google Scholar
  101. Kerslake DM (1972) The stress of hot environment. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  102. Kondratyev GM (1957) Approximate thermal assessment of clothing insulation. Trans V(C)NIISP, 6 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  103. Lally VE, Watson BF (1960) Humiture revisited. Weather 13:254–256Google Scholar
  104. Landsberg HE (1972) The assessment of human bioclimate. A limited review of physical parameters. W.M.O. Tech. Note no. 123Google Scholar
  105. Latyshev GT, Boksha VG (1965) Concerning medical estimation of weather (weather index and patients response). Quest Kurortol 4:345–351 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  106. Lecha L (1998) Biometeorological classification of daily weather types for the humid tropics. Int J Biometeorol 42:77–83Google Scholar
  107. Lee DHK (1958) Proprioclimates of man and domestic animals. Climatology: reviews of research. UNESCO Conf. Paris, 1956. Arid Zone Research Ser 10:102–125Google Scholar
  108. Lee DHK (1980) Seventy-five years of searching for a heat index. Environ Res 22:331–356Google Scholar
  109. Lee DHK, Henschel A (1966) Effects of physiological and clinical factors on response to heat. Ann NY Acad Sci 134:743–749Google Scholar
  110. Lee DHK, Vaughan IA (1964) Temperature equivalent of solar radiation on man. Int J Biometeorol 8(1):61–69Google Scholar
  111. Li PW, Chan ST (2000) Application of a weather stress index for alerting the public to stressful weather in Hong Kong. Meteorol Appl 7:369–375Google Scholar
  112. Lind AR, Hellon RF (1957) Assessment of physiologic severity of hot climate. J Appl Physiol 11:35–40Google Scholar
  113. Linke F (1926) Die Übertemperatur einer frei aufgestellten schwarzen Kugel. Meteorol Zeitschr 43:11Google Scholar
  114. Liopo TN, Cicenko GV (1971) Climatic conditions and human thermal state. Leningrad Hydrometeorological Publishing House (in Russian)Google Scholar
  115. Macpherson RK (1962) The assessment of the thermal environment. A review. Bri J Indust Med 19:151–164Google Scholar
  116. Mairiaux P, Malchaire J (1995) Comparison and validation of heat stress indices in experimental studies. Ergonomics 38:58–72Google Scholar
  117. Malchaire J, Piette A, Kampmann B, Mehnert P, Gebhardt H, Havenith G, den Hartog E, Holmer I, Parsons K, Alfano G, Griefahn B (2001) Development and validation of the predicted heat strain model. Ann Occup Hyg 45(2):123–135Google Scholar
  118. Maloney SK, Forbes CF (2011) What effect will a few degrees of climate change have on human heat balance? Implications for human activity. Int J Biometeorol 55:147–160Google Scholar
  119. Masterson J, Richardson FA (1979) Humidex, a method of quantifying human discomfort due to excessive heat and humidity. Environment Canada, Downsview.
  120. Mateeva Z, Filipov A (2003) Bioclimatic distance index in the Rila and Rhodopy area of Bulgaria. In: Błażejczyk K, Krawczyk B, Kuchcik M (eds) Postępy w badaniach klimatycznych i bioklimatycznych. Prace Geografi czne IGiPZ PAN 188:295–302Google Scholar
  121. Matyukhin VA, Kushnirenko EY (1987) Complex quality assessment of environmental influence on the human body. Proceedings of the WMO; WHO, UNEP—Symposium on Climate and Human Health in Leningrad 1986, WMO-WCP. Geneva 2:41–45Google Scholar
  122. Mayer H, Höppe P (1987) Thermal comfort of man in different urban environments. Theor Appl Climatol 38:43–49Google Scholar
  123. McArdle B, Dunham W, Holling HE, Ladell WSS, Scott JW, Thomson ML, Weiner JS (1947) The prediction of the physiological effects of warm and hot environments. Med. Res. Coun. RNP Rep. 47/391 HMSO, LondonGoogle Scholar
  124. McIntyre DA (1973) A guide to thermal comfort. Appl Ergon 4(2):66–72Google Scholar
  125. McLaughlin JT, Shulman M (1977) An anthropocentric summer severity index. Int J Biometeorol 21:16–28Google Scholar
  126. McPherson MJ (1992) The generalization of air cooling power. In: Proceedings of the 5th International Mine Ventilation Congress. Johannesburg: Mine Ventilation Society of South Africa.
  127. Mehnert P, Malchaire J, Kampmann B, Piette A, Griefahn B, Gebhardt HJ (2000) Prediction of the average skin temperature in warm and hot environments. Europ J Appl Physiol 82:52–60Google Scholar
  128. Missenard A (1933) Étude physiologique et technique de la ventilation. Léon Eyrolles, ParisGoogle Scholar
  129. Missenard A (1935) Théorie simplifié du Thermomètre Résultant. Chauf Vent 12:347–352Google Scholar
  130. Missenard A (1948) Équivalence thermique des ambiances: équivalences de passage, équivalences de séjours. Chaleur et Industrie 276:159–172, 277:189–198Google Scholar
  131. Mitchell D, Whillier A (1971) Cooling power of underground environments. J S Afr Inst Min Metallurg 72:93–99Google Scholar
  132. Mochida T (1979) Comfort Chart: an index for evaluating thermal sensation. Mem Fac Eng, Hokkaido Univ 15(2):175–185Google Scholar
  133. Moran DS (2000) Stress evaluation by the physiological strain index (PSI). J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 11(4):403–423Google Scholar
  134. Moran DS, Shapiro Y, Epstein Y, Matthew W, Pandolf KB (1998a) A modified discomfort index (MDI) as an alternative to the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). In: Hodgdon JA, Heaney JH, Buono MJ (eds) Environmental ergonomics VIII. Int Conf Environ Ergo, San Diego, pp 77–80Google Scholar
  135. Moran DS, Shitzer A, Pandolf KB (1998b) A physiological strain index to evaluate heat stress. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 275:R129–R134Google Scholar
  136. Moran DS, Castellani JW, O’Brien C, Young AJ, Pandolf KB (1999) Evaluating physiological strain during cold exposure using a new cold strain index. Am J Physiol 277(46):R556–R564Google Scholar
  137. Moran DS, Pandolf KB, Shapiro Y, Heled Y, Shani Y, Mathew WT, Gonzalez RR (2001) An environmental stress index (ESI) as a substitute for the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT). J Therm Biol 26:427–431Google Scholar
  138. Moran DS, Pandolf KB, Laor A, Heled Y, Matthew WT, Gonzalez RR (2003) Evaluation and refinement of the environmental stress index (ESI) for different climatic conditions. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 14(1):1–15Google Scholar
  139. Mount LE, Brown D (1982) The use of the meteorological records in estimating the effects of weather on sensible heat loss from sheep. Agric Meteorol 27:241–255Google Scholar
  140. Mount LE, Brown D (1985) The calculation from weather records of the requirement for clothing insulation. Int J Biometeorol 29:311–321Google Scholar
  141. Nagano K, Horikoshi T (2011) Development of outdoor thermal index indicating universal and separate effects on human thermal comfort. Int J Biometeorol 55(2):19–227Google Scholar
  142. NIOSH (1986) Criteria for a recommended standard: occupational exposure to hot environment. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication no. 86–113, Washington, pp 101–110Google Scholar
  143. Nishi Y, Gagge AP (1971) Humid operative temperature: a biophysical index of thermal sensation and discomfort. J Geophys Res 63:365–368Google Scholar
  144. OFCM (2003) Report on wind chill temperature and extreme heat indices: evaluation and improvement projects. US Department of Commerce, Federal Coordinator for Meteorological Services and Supporting Research, FCM-R19-2003, Washington, DC (
  145. Ono HP, Kawamura T (1991) Sensible climates in monsoon Asia. Int J Biometeorol 35:39–47Google Scholar
  146. Osczevski R, Bluestein M (2005) The new wind chill equivalent temperature chart. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 86(10):1453–1458Google Scholar
  147. Osokin IM (1968) About severity of winter in northern Asia. Problems of regional researches of winter season. Chita, Zabaikalsk Geogr Soc USSR 2:28–31 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  148. Pandolf KB, Moran DS (2001) New Heat and Cold Strain Predictive Indices. RTO HFM Symposium on “Blowing Hot and Cold: Protecting Against Climatic Extremes”, Dresden, Germany, 8–10 October 2001Google Scholar
  149. Pandolf KB, Stroschein LA, Drolet LL et al. (1986) Prediction modelling of physiological responses and human performance in the heat. Comput Biol Med 6:319–329Google Scholar
  150. Parsons K (2003) Human thermal environments—the effects of hot, moderate and cold environments on human health, comfort and performance, 2nd edn. Taylor and Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  151. Pedersen L (1948) Vaermestraalingsundersogelser. Committee for the study of domestic heating, Contribution Nr. 2, KopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  152. Pepi JW (1987) The summer simmer index. Weather 3:143–145Google Scholar
  153. Pepi JW (1999) The new Summer Simmer Index: a comfort index for the new millennium.
  154. Pickup J, de Dear R (2000) An Outdoor Thermal Comfort Index (OUT_SET*)—Part I—The model and its assumptions. In: de Dear R, Kalma J, Oke T, Auliciems A (eds) Biometeorology and urban climatology at the turn of the millenium. Selected papers from the conference ICB-ICUC'99 (Sydney, 8–12 Nov. 1999). WMO, Geneva, WCASP 50:279–283Google Scholar
  155. Poschmann A (1932) Dissertation. FrankfurtGoogle Scholar
  156. Pulket C, Henschel A, Burg WR, Saltzman BE (1980) A comparison of heat stress indices in a hot-humid environment. Am Indust Hyg Assoc J 41(6):442–449Google Scholar
  157. Rissanen S, Rintamäki H (2007) Cold and heat strain during cold-weather field training with nuclear, biological, and chemical protective clothing. Mil Med 172(2):128–132Google Scholar
  158. Robinson S, Turrel ES, Gerking SD (1945) Physiologically equivalent conditions of air temperature and humidity. Am J Physiol 143:21–32Google Scholar
  159. Rodriguez C, Mateos J, Garmendia J (1985) Biometeorological comfort index. Int J Biometeorol 29(2):121–129Google Scholar
  160. Rohles FH, Nevin RG (1971) The nature of thermal comfort for sedentary man. ASHRAE Trans 77(1):239–246Google Scholar
  161. Rohles F, Hayter R, Milliken G (1975) Effective temperature (ET*) as a predictor of thermal comfort. ASHRAE Trans 81(2):148–156Google Scholar
  162. Romanova EN, Gobarova EO, Zhiltsova EL (2000) Methods of using of systematic climate and microclimate information in development of strategies for urban construction concepts. Hydrometeoizdat, St-Petersburg (in Russian)Google Scholar
  163. Rublack K, Medvedeva EF, Gaebelin H, Noach H, Schulz G (1981) Integrative bewertung der warmebelastung durch arbeit und klima (Integrative evaluation of heat loading due to work and climate). Zeitschrift fur die Gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete 27:12–17Google Scholar
  164. Rusanov VI (1973) Methods of climate research in medical purposes. Tomsk State University, Tomsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  165. Rusanov VI (1981) Complex meteorological indices and methods of climate assessment in medical purposes. Handbook for Students. Tomsk, Tomsk State University (in Russian)Google Scholar
  166. Rusanov VI (1987) Climate and human health. Proceedings of the WMO; WHO, UNEP—Symposium on climate and human health in Leningrad 1986, WMO-WCP. Geneva 2:101–106Google Scholar
  167. Rusanov VI (1989) Appraisal of meteorological conditions defining human respiration. Bull Russ Acad Med Sci 1:57–60 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  168. Santee WR, Wallace RF (2003) Evaluation of weather service heat indices using the USARIEM heat strain decision aid (HSDA) model. USARIEM technical reportGoogle Scholar
  169. Scharlau K (1943) Die Schwüle als Messbare Grösse. Bioklimat Beibl 10:19–23Google Scholar
  170. Schoen CA (2005) New empirical model of the temperature–Humidity Index. J Appl Meteorol 44:1413–1420Google Scholar
  171. Sheleihovskyi GV (1948) Microclimate of southern cities. Academy of Medicine Sciences of the USSR, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  172. Sheridan SC (2002) The redevelopment of a weather type classification scheme for North America. Int J Climatol 22:51–68Google Scholar
  173. Siple PA, Passel CF (1945) Measurements of dry atmospheric cooling in sub-freezing temperatures. Proc Am Philos Soc 89:177–199Google Scholar
  174. Smith FE (1952) Effective temperature as an index of physiological stress. Royal Navy Personnel Research Committee Report No RNP 53/728. Medical Research Council, LondonGoogle Scholar
  175. Smithson PA, Baldwin H (1979) The cooling power of wind and its influence on human comfort in upland areas of Britain. Arch Meteorol Geoph Biokl, Ser B 27:361–380Google Scholar
  176. Sohar E, Tennenbaum J, Yaski D (1962) Estimation of daily water intake (to replace water loss) from the cumulative discomfort index. In: Tromp SW (ed) Biometeorology. Pergamon, Oxford, pp 401–403Google Scholar
  177. Staiger H, Laschewski G, Grätz A (2012) The perceived temperature—a versatile index for the assessment of the human thermal environment. Part A: scientific basics. Int J Biometeorol 56:165–176Google Scholar
  178. Steadman RG (1971) Indices of windchill of clothed persons. J Appl Meteorol 10:674–683Google Scholar
  179. Steadman RG (1979) The assessment of sultriness. Part I: A temperature–humidity index based on human physiology and clothing science. J Appl Meteorol 18:861–873Google Scholar
  180. Steadman RG (1984) A universal scale of apparent temperature. J Cim Appl Meteorol 23:1674–1687Google Scholar
  181. Steadman RG (1994) Norms of apparent temperature in Australia. Aust Met Mag 43:1–16Google Scholar
  182. Tennenbaum J, Sohar E, Adar R, Gilat T, Yaski D (1961) The physiological significance of the cumulative discomfort index (Cum DI). Harefuah 60:315–319Google Scholar
  183. Terjung WH (1966) Physiologic climates of the conterminous US: a bioclimatological classification based on man. Ann Am Ass Geogr 56:141–179Google Scholar
  184. Terjung WH (1968) World patterns of distribution of the monthly comfort index. Int J Biometeorol 12:119–151Google Scholar
  185. Thilenius R, Dorno C (1925) Das Davoser Frigorimeter (ein Instrument zur Dauerregistrierung der physiologischen Abkühlungsgrösse). Meteorol Zeitschr 42:57–60Google Scholar
  186. Thom EC (1957) A new concept of cooling degree days. Air Condit Heat Ventil 54(6):73–80Google Scholar
  187. Thom EC, Bosen JF (1959) The discomfort index. Weather 12:57–60Google Scholar
  188. Tikhomirov II (1968) Bioclimatology of Central Antarctica and human acclimatization. Nauka, Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  189. Tromp SW (1966) A physiological method for determining the degree of meteorological cooling. Nature 210:486–487Google Scholar
  190. Trubina MA, Hasso LA, Dyachko ZK (2010) Methods of bioclimatic estimation of the Northwest region of Russia. Trans Russ State Hydrometeorol Univ 13:121–137 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  191. Vernon HM (1932) The measurement of radiant heat in relation to human comfort. J Indust Hyg 14:95–111Google Scholar
  192. Vernon HM, Warner CG (1932) The influence of the humidity of the air on capacity for work at high temperatures. J Hyg 32:431–462Google Scholar
  193. Vogt JJ, Candas V, Libert JP, Hoeft A (1978) Die erforderliche Schweissabgabe als Index der Wiirmebelastung. Z Arb wiss 32:241–250Google Scholar
  194. Vogt JJ, Candas V, Libert JP, Daull F (1981) Required sweat rate as an index of thermal strain in industry. In: Cena K, Clark JA (eds) Bioengineering, thermal physiology and comfort. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 99–110Google Scholar
  195. Vogt JJ, Candas V, Libert JP (1982) Graphical determination of heat tolerance limits. Ergonomics 25(4):285–294Google Scholar
  196. Wallace RF, Kriebel D, Punnett L, Wegman DH, Wenger CB, Gardner JW, Gonzales RR (2005) The effects of continuous hot weather training on risk of exertional heat illness. Med Sci Sports Exerc 37:84–90Google Scholar
  197. Watts JD, Kalkstein SL (2004) The development of a Warm-Weather Relative Stress Index for environmental applications. J Appl Meteorol 43:503–513Google Scholar
  198. Webb CG (1959) An analysis of some observations of thermal comfort in an equatorial climate. Br J Indust Med 16:297–310Google Scholar
  199. Weiss M (1982) The humisery and other measures of summer discomfort. Nat Weather Digest 7(2):10–18Google Scholar
  200. Wenzel HG (1978) Heat stress upon undressed man due to different combinations of elevated environmental temperature, air humidity, and metabolic heat production: a critical comparison of heat stress indices. J Hum Ergol 7:185–206Google Scholar
  201. Winslow CEA, Herrington LP (1949) Temperature and human life. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  202. Winslow CEA, Gagge AP, Greenburg L, Moriyama IM, Rodee EJ (1935) The calibrating of the thermo-integrator. Am J Hyg 22:137–156Google Scholar
  203. Winslow CEA, Herrington LP, Gagge AP (1937) Physiological reactions of the human body to varying environmental temperatures. Am J Physiol 120:1–22Google Scholar
  204. Winterling GA (1979) Humiture-revised and adapted for the summer season in Jacksonville, Florida. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 60:329–330Google Scholar
  205. Yaglou CP, Minard D (1957) Control of heat casualties at military training centers. Arch Indust Health 16:302–316Google Scholar
  206. Yan YY (2005) Climate comfort indices. In: Oliver JE (ed) Encyclopedia of world climatology. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 227–231Google Scholar
  207. Young KC (1979) The influence of environmental parameters on heat stress during exercise. J Appl Meteorol 18:886–897Google Scholar
  208. Zaninović K (1992) Limits of warm and cold bioclimatic stress in different climatic regions. Theor Appl Climatol 45(1):65–70Google Scholar
  209. Zuhairy AA, Sayigh AAM (1993) The development of the bioclimatic concept in building design. Renew Energy 3:521–533Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of EnvironmentUniversity of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Institute for Complex Analysis of Regional Problems, Far Eastern BranchRussian Academy of SciencesBirobidzhanRussia

Personalised recommendations