International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 58, Issue 6, pp 1383–1391 | Cite as

Effects of dietary chromium picolinate and peppermint essential oil on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of broiler chicks reared under heat stress conditions

  • Mohsen Akbari
  • Mehran TorkiEmail author
Original Paper


A study was conducted using 240 female day-old broiler chicks to evaluate the effects of dietary chromium picolinate (CrPic), peppermint essential oil (, or their combination on growth performance and blood biochemical parameters of female broiler chicks raised under heat stress conditions (HS, 23.9 to 38 °C cycling). Average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were obtained from 1 to 42 days of age. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment (day 42), birds were bled to determine some blood biochemical parameters and weighed for final body weight (BW). ADFI, ADG, and BW were not influenced significantly by dietary CrPic and (P > 0.05). A significant interaction between dietary CrPic and on FCR (P = 0.012) was detected. FCR significantly decreased in chicks fed the diet including both CrPic and compared with the CrPic group. Significant interaction between dietary and CrPic on serum concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and albumin were observed (P < 0.05), but the other measured blood biochemical parameters were not statistically affected by dietary treatments (P > 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides were decreased (P < 0.05) in broilers fed the diet including both CrPic and Plasma chromium (Cr) content increased significantly (P < 0.05) in birds fed the CrPic-included diet compared with the control group (P < 0.05). From the results of the present experiment it can be concluded that dietary supplementation with combined and CrPic could have beneficial effects on some blood biochemical parameters of female chicks reared under heat stress conditions.


Broiler Cholesterol Chromium concentration HDL Heat stress Natural growth promoter 



This work was funded by Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.

Ethical standards

All experimental protocols adhered to the guidelines of, and were approved by, the Animal Ethics Committee of Razi University (Kermanshah, Iran), also were in accordance with the guidelines on animal welfare. The permission letter issued by Animal Ethics Committee of Razi University is AD-11, February 2012)


  1. Anand P, Murali KY, Tandon V, Murthy PS, Chandra R (2010) Insulin tropic effect of cinnamaldehyde on transcriptional regulation of pyruvate kinase, phosphorenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and GLU4 translocation in experimental diabetic rats. Chem-Biol Interact 186:72–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson RA (1987) Chromium. In: Mertz W (ed) Trace elements in human and animal nutrition. Academic, New York, pp 225–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AOAC (1990) Official methods of analysis, 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, ArglintonGoogle Scholar
  4. Brock JH (1985) Transferrins. In: Harrison PM (ed) Metal proteins, vol 2. Macmillan, London, pp 183–262Google Scholar
  5. Buyukbalci A, El SN (2008) Determination of in vitro antidiabetic effects, antioxidant activities and phenol contents of some herbal teas. Plant Foods Hum Nutr 63(1):27–33, 201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen KL, Lu JJ, Lien TF, Chiou PW (2001) Effects of chromium nicotinate on performance, carcase characteristics and blood chemistry of growing turkeys. Br Poult Sci 42:399–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cupo MA, Donaldson WE (1987) Chromium and vanadium effects on glucose metabolism and lipid synthesis in chicks. Poult Sci 66:120–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dieber-Rotheneder M, Puhl H, Waeg G, Streigl G, Esterbauer H (1991) Effect of oral supplementation with Dα tocopherol on the vitamin E content of human low density lipoproteins and resistance to oxidation. J Lipid Res 32:1325–1332Google Scholar
  9. Dorman HJD, Kosar M, Kahlos K, Holm Y, Hiltunen R (2003) Antioxidant properties and composition of aqueous extracts from Mentha species, hybrids, varieties, and cultivars. J Agric Food Chem 51:4563–4569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gallaher DD, Csallany AS, Shoeman DW (1993) Diabetes increases excretion of urinary malondehyde cojugates in rats. Lipids 28:663–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Geraert PA, Padilha JCF, Guillaumin S (1996) Metabolic and endocrine changes induced by chronic heat exposure in broiler chickens: growth performance, body composition and energy retention. Br J Nutr 75:195–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ghazi SH, Habibian M, Moeini MM, Abdolmohammadi AR (2012) Effects of different levels of organic and inorganic chromium on growth performance and immunocompetence of broilers under heat stress. Biol Trace Elem Res 146:309–317. doi: 10.1007/s12011-011-9260-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gross WB, Siegel HS (1983) Evaluation of the heterophil to lymphocyte ratio as a measure of stress in chickens. Avian Dis 27:972–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1989) Free radicals. In: biology and medicine, 2nd ed, Oxford University Press, New York, pp 103–112Google Scholar
  15. Hernandez F, Madrid J, Garcia V, Orengo J, Megias MD (2004) Influence of two plant extracts on broilers performance, digestibility, and digestive organ size. Poult Sci 83:169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jessup W, Rankin SM, De Whalley C, Hoult JRS, Scott J, Leake DS (1990) Alpha-tocopherol consumption during low-density-lipoprotein oxidation. Biochem J 265:399–405Google Scholar
  17. Kim YH, Han INK, Choi YJ, Shin IS, Chae BJ, Kang TH (1996) Effects of dietary levels of chromium picolinate on growth performance, carcasses quality and serum traits in broiler chicks. Asian-Aus J Anim Sci 9:341–347Google Scholar
  18. Lamaty G, Menut C, Bessiere JM, Zollo PHA, Fekam F (1987) Aromatic plants of tropical Central Africa, I. Volatile components of two annonaceae from Cameroon: Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Dunal Flavours Fragrance J 2:91–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lambert B, Jacquemin C (1979) Inhibition of epinephrine-induced lipolysis in isolated white adipocytes of aging rabbits by increased alpha-adrenergic responsiveness. J Lipid Res 20:208–216Google Scholar
  20. Lee KW, Everts H, Kappert HJ, Frehner M, Losa R, Beynen AC (2003) Effects of dietary essential oil components on growth performance, digestive enzymes and lipid metabolism in female broiler chickens. Br Poult Sci 44:450–457CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lee KW, Everts H, Kappert HJ, Wouterse H, Frehner M, Beynen AC (2004) Cinnamaldehyde, but not thymol, counteracts the carboxymethyl cellulose-induced growth depression in female broiler chickens. Int J Poult Sci 3:608–612CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lin H, Decuypere E, Buyse J (2006) Acute heat stress induces oxidative stress in broiler chickens. Comp Biochem Physiol 144:11–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Linder MC (1991) Nutrition and metabolism of the trace elements. In: Linder MC (ed) Nutritional biochemistry and metabolism with clinical applications. Elsevier, New York, pp 215–276Google Scholar
  24. Lu Q, Wen J, Zhang H (2007) Effect of chronic heat exposure on fat deposition and meat quality in two genetic types of chicken. Poult Sci 86:1059–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Luadicina DC, Marnett LJ (1990) Enhancement of hydro peroxide-dependent lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes by ascorbic acid. Arch Biochem Biophys 278:73–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Marjani A, Rahmati R, Mansourian AR, Veghari GH (2012) Effect of peppermint oil on serum lipid peroxidation and hepatic enzymes after immobility stress in mice. Open Biochem J 6:51–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Moeini MM, Bahrami A, Ghazi S, Targhibi MR (2011) The effect of different levels of organic and inorganic chromium supplementation on production performance, carcass traits and some blood parameters of broiler chicken under heat stress condition. Biol Trace Elem Res 144:715–724. doi: 10.1007/s12011-011-9116-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mujahid A, Yoshiki Y, Akiba Y, Toyomizu M (2005) Superoxide radical production in chicken skeletal muscle induced by acute heat stress. Poult Sci 84:307–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mujahid A, Pumford NR, Bottje W, Nakagawa K, Miyazawa T, Akiba Y, Toyomizu M (2007) Mitochondrial oxidative damage in chicken skeletal muscle induced by acute heat stress. J Poult Sci 44:439–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Neu HC (1992) The crisis in antibiotic resistance. Sci 257:1064–1073CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Niu ZY, Liu FZ, Yan QL, Li WC (2009) Effects of different levels of vitamin E on growth performance and immune responses of broilers under heat stress. Poult Sci 88:2101–2107. doi: 10.3382/ps.2009-00220 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. NRC (1994) National Research Council. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry, 9th edn. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  33. NRC (1997) The role of chromium in animal nutrition. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  34. Onderci M, Sahin N, Sahin K, Kilic N (2003) Antioxidant properties of chromium and zinc. Biol Trace Elem Res 92:139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Papageorgiou G, Botsoglou N, Govaris A, Giannenas I, Iliadis S, Botsoglou E (2003) Effect of dietary oregano oil and alpha-tocopheryl acetate supplementation on iron-induced lipid oxidation of turkey breast, thigh, liver and heart tissues. J Anim Physiol Nutr 87:324–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Perkin E (1982) Analytical methods for the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Perkin Elmer, Norwalk, CTGoogle Scholar
  37. Preuss HG, Grojec PL, Lieberman S et al (1997) Effects of different chromium compounds on blood pressure and lipid peroxidation in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Clin Nephrol 47(5):325–330Google Scholar
  38. Rosebrough RW, Steele NC (1981) Effect of supplemental dietary chromium or nicotic acid on carbohydrate metabolism during basal, starvation and refeeding periods in poults. Poult Sci 60:407–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sahin K, Kucuk O, Sahin N (2001) Effects of dietary chromium picolinate supplementation on egg production, egg quality, and serum concentrations of insulin, corticostrerone and some metabolites of Japanese quails. Nutr Res 21:1315–1321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sahin K, Sahin N, Onderci M, Gursu F, Cikim G (2002a) Optimal dietary concentration of chromium for alleviating the effect of heat stress on growth, carcass qualities and some serum metabolites of broiler chickens. Biol Trace Elem Res 89:53–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sahin K, Sahin N, Yaralioglu S (2002b) Effects of vitamin C and vitamin E on lipid per-oxidation, blood serum metabolites and mineral concentrations of laying hens reared at high ambient temperature. Biol Trace Elem Res 85:35–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Sahin N, Onderci M, Sahin K (2002c) Effects of dietary chromium and zinc on egg production, egg quality and some blood metabolites of laying hens reared under low ambient temperature. Biol Trace Element Res 85:47–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sahin N, Sahin K, Onderci M, Gursu MF, Cikim G, Vijaya J, Kucuk O (2010) Chromium picolinate, rather than biotin, alleviates performance and metabolic parameters in heat-stressed quail. Br Poult Sci 46:457–463. doi: 10.1080/00071660500190918 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sahin N, Sahin K, Onderci M, Ozcelik M, Smith MO (2003) In vivo antioxidant properties of vitamin E and chromium in cold-stressed Japanese quails. Arch Anim Nutr 57(3):207–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. SAS software (2001) SAS User’s guide: Statistics, Version 9.2. SAS Institute, North CarolinaGoogle Scholar
  46. Schuhmacher A, Reichling J, Schnitzler P (2003) Virucidal effect of peppermint oil on the enveloped herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 in vitro. Phyto Med 10:504–510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Siegel HS (1995) Stress, strains and resistance. Br Poult Sci 36:3–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Smith MO, Soisuvan K, Miller LC (2003) Evaluation of dietary calcium level and fat source on growth performance and mineral utilization of heat-distressed broilers. Int J Poult Sci 2(1):32–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Smith MO, Teeter RG (1987) Potassium balance of the 5 to 8-week old boiler exposed to constant heat or cycling high temperature stress and the effects of supplemental potassium chloride on body weight gain and feed efficiency. Poult Sci 66:487–492CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tang SZ, Kerry JP, Sheehan D, Buckley DJ, Morrissey PA (2000) Dietary tea catechins and iron-induced lipid oxidation in chicken meat, liver and heart. Meat Sci 56:285–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Teissedre PL, Waterhouse AL (2000) Inhibition of oxidation of human low-density lipoproteins by phenolic substances in different essential oils varieties. J Agric Food Chem 48:3801–3805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Toghyani M, Shivazad M, Gheisari AA, Zarkesh SH (2006) Performance, carcass traits and hematological parameters of heat-stressed broiler chicks in response to dietary levels of chromium picolinate. Int J Poult Sci 5(1):65–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Toghyani M, Toghyani M, Shivazad M, Gheisari AA, Bahadoran R (2012) Chromium supplementation can alleviate the negative effects of heat stress on growth performance, carcass traits, and meat lipid oxidation of broiler chicks without any adverse impacts on blood constituents. 146:171–180. doi:  10.1007/s12011-011-9234-3
  54. Uyanik F, Atasever A, Ozdamar S, Aydin F (2002) Effects of dietary chromium chloride supplementation on performance, some serum parameters and immune response in broiler. Biol Trace Elem Res 90:99–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wang ZQ, Zhang XH, Cefalu WT (2000) Chromium picolinate and biotin enhance glycogen synthesis and glycogen synthase gene expression in human skeletal muscle culture. Presented at the 17th International Diabetes Federation Congress, MexicoGoogle Scholar
  56. Williams P, Losa R (2001) The use of essential oils and their compounds in poultry nutrition. World Poult 17:14–15Google Scholar
  57. Xie W, Zhao Y, Zhang Y (2011) Traditional Chinese medicines in treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Evidence-Based Complement Altern Med 1–13Google Scholar
  58. Yardibi H, Turkay G (2008) The effects of vitamin E on the antioxidant system, egg production and egg quality in heat stressed laying hen. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 32:319–325Google Scholar
  59. Young JF, Stagsted J, Jensen SK, Karlsson AH, Henckel P (2003) Ascorbic acid, alpha-tocopherol, and oregano supplements reduce stress-induced deterioration of chicken meat quality. Poult Sci 82:1343–1351CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Animal Science, Faculty of AgricultureRazi UniversityKermanshahIran

Personalised recommendations