International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 58, Issue 6, pp 1109–1117 | Cite as

Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

  • Satoshi Iwase
  • Yuko Kawahara
  • Naoki Nishimura
  • Rumiko Nishimura
  • Junichi Sugenoya
  • Chihiro Miwa
  • Masumi Takada
Original Paper


To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ∼30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.


Mist sauna Thermoregulation Isometric exercise Isotonic exercise 



The present study was performed as cooperative research between Aichi Medical University and Toho Gas Co. Ltd. We are grateful for the cooperation of the subjects in this study.

Conflict of interest

There is no conflict of interest with any financial organization regarding the material discussed in the manuscript.


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Copyright information

© ISB 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Satoshi Iwase
    • 1
  • Yuko Kawahara
    • 2
  • Naoki Nishimura
    • 1
  • Rumiko Nishimura
    • 1
  • Junichi Sugenoya
    • 3
  • Chihiro Miwa
    • 4
  • Masumi Takada
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyAichi Medical UniversityNagakuteJapan
  2. 2.Development Group, Product Development Department, Research & Development DivisionToho Gas Co., Ltd.NagoyaJapan
  3. 3.School of NursingSugiyama Jogakuen UniversityChikusa-ku, NagoyaJapan
  4. 4.Aichi Medical College for Physical Therapy and Occupational TherapyKiyosuJapan

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