International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 58, Issue 5, pp 987–997 | Cite as

Potential oversummering and overwintering regions for the wheat stripe rust pathogen in the contiguous United States

  • Dipak Sharma-Poudyal
  • Xianming Chen
  • Richard Alan Rupp
Original Paper


Epidemics of wheat stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), are more frequent in the regions where Pst can oversummer and overwinter. Regions for potential oversummering and overwintering of Pst were determined in the contiguous United States using a survival index (SI) ranging from 0 (most unfavorable) to 10 (most favorable) developed based on long-term weather data. The pathogen can survive in cool summer in the most regions north of latitude 40°N, particularly Washington, Idaho, Montana, Oregon and California. Due to limiting high temperatures, it survives marginally during summer in Arkansas, Delaware, Georgia, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Missouri, Ohio, Oklahoma, Rhode Island and Texas. Similarly, unfavorable hot summer restricts summer survival of the pathogen in the most regions south of 40°N except for highlands in the Rocky or Appalachian Mountains. Warm winters favor fungal survival in most regions south of 40°N and the Pacific Coast, including Alabama, Arkansas, Arizona, California, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas and Washington. Severe winters do not allow survival in most regions north of 40°N and east of the Rocky Mountains, whereas less severe winter in Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Kentucky, Massachusetts, Maryland, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Utah and Virginia permits marginal survival of Pst. Most wheat-growing regions have climatic suitability for either oversummering or overwintering. Both oversummering and overwintering can occur in the Pacific Northwest (Idaho, Oregon and Washington), Arizona, California, North Carolina, New Mexico, Pennsylvania, Virginia and West Virginia. These regions may provide primary inoculum for stripe rust epidemics in their own and surrounding regions.


GIS Oversummering Overwintering Pathogen survival Puccinia striiformis Stripe rust Yellow rust 


  1. Brouwer C, Heibloem M (1986) Irrigation water management: Irrigation water needs, irrigation water management training manual No. 3. Accessed 18 December 2010
  2. Brown JKM, Hovmøller MS (2002) Aerial dispersal of pathogens on the global and continental scales and its impact on plant disease. Science 297:537–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burleigh JR (1965) The winter biology of Puccinia striiformis West. in the Pacific Northwest. Dissertation, Washington State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen XM (2005) Epidemiology and control of stripe rust [Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici] on wheat. Can J Plant Pathol 27:314–337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen XM, Penman L, Wan AM, Cheng P (2010) Virulence races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in 2006 and 2007 and development of wheat stripe rust and distributions, dynamics, and evolutionary relationships of races from 2000 to 2007 in the United States. Can J Plant Pathol 35:315–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. de Vallavieille-Pope C, Huber L, Leconte M, Goyeau H (1995) Comparative effects of temperature and interrupted wet periods on germination, penetration, and infection of Puccinia recondita f. sp. tritici and P. striiformis on wheat seedlings. Phytopathology 85:409–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dennis JI (1987a) Effect of high temperatures on survival and development of Puccinia striiformis on wheat. Trans Br Mycol Soc 88:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dennis JI (1987b) Temperature and wet-period conditions for infection by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici race 104E137A +. Trans Br Mycol Soc 88:119–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dennis J, Brown J (1986) Summer survival of Puccinia striiformis f. sp tritici in Victoria, Australia. Aust Plant Pathol 15:57–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dietz SM, Hendrix JW (1962) Reaction of grasses to stripe rust at Pullman, Washington. Phytopathology 52:730Google Scholar
  11. Doodson KJ, Manners JG, Myers A (1964) Some effects of yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis) on the growth and yield of spring wheat. Ann Bot 28:459–472Google Scholar
  12. Ellison PJ, Murray GM (1992) Epidemiology of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici on wheat in southern New South Wales. Aust J Agric Res 43:29–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Eversmeyer MG, Kramer CL (1996) Modeling winter wheat and early spring survival of Puccinia recondita in wheat nurseries during 1980 to 1993. Plant Dis 80:490–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Georgievskaja NA (1966) Quelques lois sur Ie developpement de la rouille Jaune du ble. Tr. Vses. Nauchno Issled. Inst Zabtsh Rost Leningrad 26:55–63Google Scholar
  15. Hassebrauk K (1965) Nomenklatur, geographische Verbreitung und wirtsbereich des Gelbrostes, Puccinia striiformis West. Mitt Biol Bundesanst Land Forstwirtsch 116:1–75Google Scholar
  16. Hendrix JW, Burleigh JR, Tu JC (1965) Oversummering of stripe rust at high elevations in the Pacific Northwest-1963. Plant Dis Rep 49:275–78Google Scholar
  17. Hong TD, Ellis RH, Moore D (1997) Development of a model to predict the effect of temperature and moisture on fungal spore longevity. Ann Bot 79:121–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Hungerford CW (1923) Studies on the life history of stripe rust, Puccinia glumarum. J Agric Res 24:607–20Google Scholar
  19. Hungerford CW, Owens CE (1923) Specialized varieties of Puccinia glumarum and hosts for variety tritici. J Agric Res 25:363–401Google Scholar
  20. Imbaby IA, Nazim M, Ali MM, Abdel-Malek NI (2005) Viability of wheat rust urediniospores produced on different stages of susceptible plants. Egypt J Phytopathol 33:59–76Google Scholar
  21. Kang Z, Zhao J, Han D, Zhang H, Wang X, Wang C, Han Q, Guo J, Huang L (2010) Status of wheat rust research and control in China. BGRI 2010 Technical Workshop, May 30–31 2010, St Petersburg, Russia. Accessed 14 December 2010
  22. Li ZQ, Zeng SM (2002) Wheat rusts in China. China Agricultural, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  23. Line RF (2002) Stripe rust of wheat and barley in North America: a retrospective historical review. Annu Rev Phytopathol 40:75–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Line RF, Qayoum A (1992) Virulence, aggressiveness, evolution, and distribution of races of Puccinia striiformis (the cause of stripe rust of wheat) in North America, 1968–87. Technical Bulletin Number 1788. United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research ServiceGoogle Scholar
  25. Ma ZH, Shi SD, Jiang YY, Zhao ZH (2005) Climate-based regional classification for oversummering of Puccinia striiformis in China with GIS. Acta Phytopathol Sin 34:455–462Google Scholar
  26. Maddison AC, Manners JG (1973) Lethal effects of artificial ultraviolet radiation on cereal rust uredospores. Trans Br Mycol Soc 60:471–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McCracken FI, Burleigh JR (1962) Influence of light and temperature on in vitro germination of Puccinia striiformis uredospores. Phytopathology 52:742Google Scholar
  28. Murray GM, Ellison PJ, Watson A, Cullis BR (1994) The relationship between wheat yield and stripe rust as affected by length of epidemic and temperature at the grain development stage of crop growth. Plant Pathol 43:397–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Naoumova NAM (1937) Natural fluctuations of temperature and the duration of the incubation period of Puccinia glumarum f. sp. tritici. Zaschita Rasteniy 12:51–66Google Scholar
  30. Peel MD, Riveland N (1977) Winter wheat production in North Dakota. Extension bulletin 33. Accessed 5 May 2011
  31. Rapilly F (1979) Yellow rust epidemiology. Annu Rev Phytopathol 17:59–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Shaner G, Powelson RL (1971) Epidemiology of stripe rust of wheat, 1961–1968. Oreg Agric Exp Stn Tech Bull 117Google Scholar
  33. Shaner G, Powelson RL (1973) The oversummering and dispersal of inoculum of Puccinia striiformis in Oregon. Phytopathology 63:13–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sharma-Poudyal D, Chen XM (2011) Models for predicting potential yield loss of wheat caused by stripe rust in the US Pacific Northwest. Phytopathology 101:544–554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sharp EL (1965) Prepenetration and postpenetration environment and development of Puccinia striiformis on wheat. Phytopathology 55:198–203Google Scholar
  36. Sharp EL, Hehn ER (1963) Overwintering of stripe rust in winter wheat in Montana. Phytopathology 53:1239–40Google Scholar
  37. Shi SD, Ma ZH (2005) Climate-based regional classification for overwintering of Puccinia striiformis in China with GIS and geostatistics. ACTA Phytophylacica Sinica 32:29–32Google Scholar
  38. Smilanick JL, Mansour MF (2007) Influence of temperature and humidity on survival of Penicillium digitatum and Geotrichum citri-aurantii. Plant Dis 91:990–996CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Stakman EC (1934) Epidemiology of cereal rusts. Proceedings of the Fifth Pacific ScienceCongress (Canada), 1933, vol 4, University of TorontoPress, Toronto, pp 3177–3184Google Scholar
  40. Stubbs RW (1985) Stripe rust. In: Roelfs AP, Bushnell WR (eds) The cereal rusts, vol II. Diseases, distribution, epidemiology, and control. Academic, Florida, pp 61–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sutton JC (1988) Predictive value of weather variables in the epidemiology and management of foliar diseases. Fitopatol Bras 13:305–12Google Scholar
  42. Theobald DM (2005) GIS concepts and ArcGIS methods, 2nd edn. Conservation Planning Technologies, Fort CollinsGoogle Scholar
  43. Tollenaar H, Houston BR (1966) Effect of temperature during uredospore production and light on in vitro germination of urediniospores of Puccinia striiformis. Phytopathology 56:787–790Google Scholar
  44. Tollenaar H, Houston BR (1967) A study on the epidemiology of stripe rust, Puccinia striiformis West., in California. Can J Bot 45:291–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tu JC (1967) The summer biology of Puccinia striiformis West. In Southeastern Washington. Dissertation, Washington State UniversityGoogle Scholar
  46. Wang H, Yang XB, Ma Z (2010) Long-distance spore transport of wheat stripe rust pathogen from Sichuan, Yunnan, and Guizhou in southwestern China. Plant Dis 94:873–880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zadoks JC (1961) Yellow rust on wheat, studies in epidemiology and physiologic specialization. Neth J Plant Pathol 67:69–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zadoks JC (1965) Epidemiology of wheat rust in Europe. FAO Plant Prot Bull 13:97–108Google Scholar

Copyright information

© US Government 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dipak Sharma-Poudyal
    • 1
  • Xianming Chen
    • 1
    • 2
  • Richard Alan Rupp
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Plant PathologyWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  2. 2.Wheat Genetics, Quality, Physiology, and Disease Research UnitUS Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research ServicePullmanUSA
  3. 3.Department of Crop and Soil SciencesWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA

Personalised recommendations