Advertisement

International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 58, Issue 5, pp 963–974 | Cite as

The influence of outdoor thermal environment on young Japanese females

  • Yoshihito Kurazumi
  • Jin Ishii
  • Emi Kondo
  • Kenta Fukagawa
  • Zhecho Dimitrov Bolashikov
  • Tomonori Sakoi
  • Tadahiro Tsuchikawa
  • Naoki Matsubara
  • Tetsumi Horikoshi
Original Paper

Abstract

The influence of short wave solar radiation appears to be strong outdoors in summer, and the influence of airflow appears to be strong outdoors in winter. The purpose of this paper was to clarify the influence of the outdoor environment on young Japanese females. This research shows the relationship between the physiological and psychological responses of humans and the enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature (ETFe). Subjective experiments were conducted in an outdoor environment. Subjects were exposed to the thermal environment in a standing posture. Air temperature, humidity, air velocity, short wave solar radiation, long wave radiation, ground surface temperature, sky factor, and the green solid angle were measured. The temperatures of skin exposed to the atmosphere and in contact with the ground were measured. Thermal sensation and thermal comfort were measured by means of rating the whole-body thermal sensation (cold–hot) and the whole body thermal comfort (comfortable–uncomfortable) on a linear scale. Linear rating scales are given for the hot (100) and cold (0), and comfortable (100) and uncomfortable (0) directions only. Arbitrary values of 0 and 100 were assigned to each endpoint, the reported values read in, and the entire length converted into a numerical value with an arbitrary scale of 100 to give a linear rating scale. The ETFe considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 35.9 °C, with 32.3 °C and 42.9 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the ETFe considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The mean skin temperature considered to report a neither hot nor cold, thermally neutral sensation of 50 was 33.3 °C, with 31.0 °C and 34.3 °C, respectively, corresponding to the low and high temperature ends of the mean skin temperature considered to report a neither comfortable nor uncomfortable comfort value of 50. The acceptability raised the mean skin temperature even for thermal environment conditions in which ETFe was high.

Keywords

ETFe Outdoor environment Mean skin temperature Sensational and physiological temperature Thermal comfort Thermal sensation 

References

  1. Ahmed KS (2003) Comfort in urban spaces, Defining the boundaries of outdoor thermal comfort for the tropical urban environments. Energy Buildings 35(1):103–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Brager GS, de Dear RJ (1998) Thermal adaptation in the build environment : a literature review. Energy Buildings 27:83–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cheng M, Lo J, Chen S (2011) Investigation of the effect of climatic adaptation on users’ thermal comfort requirement in outdoor space. Int J Phys Sci 6(25):6042–6052Google Scholar
  4. de Dear RJ, Brager GS (2002) Thermal comfort in naturally ventilated buildings. Revisions to ASHRAE Standard 55. Energy Buildings 34(6):549–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Dear RJ, Pickup J (2000) An outdoor thermal comfort index (OUT_SET*). Part II—Applications. In: de Dear RJ, Kalma JD, Oke TR, Auliciem, A (eds) Biometeorology and urban climatology at the turn of the millennium. Selected Papers from the ICB-ICUC’99 conference, Sydney, WCASP-50, WMO/TD No. 1026. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, pp 284–290.Google Scholar
  6. Elam R, Goodwin DW, Williams KL (1963) Optical properties of the human epidermis. Nature 198(4884):1001–1002CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Eliasson I, Knez I, Westerberg U, Thorsson S, Lindberg F (2007) Climate and behaviour in a Nordic city. Landsc Urban Plan 82(1–2):72–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Furuta T, Horikoshi T (2000) Trial evaluation of sensational climate based on the human heat balance and physiological-psychological responses in urban spaces. J Archit Plan Environ Eng (Trans AIJ) 533:45–49Google Scholar
  9. Gagge AP, Nishi Y, Gonzalez RR (1972) Standard effective temperature, - A single temperature index of temperature sensation and thermal discomfort, Proceedings of the CIB Commission W45 (Human requirements) Symposium, Thermal comfort and moderate heat stress. Build Res Establish Rep 2:229–250Google Scholar
  10. Gagge AP, Fobelets AP, Berglund LG (1986) A standard predictive index of human response to the thermal environment. ASHRAE Trans 92:709–731Google Scholar
  11. Gassho A, Tamura A, Matsubara N, Kurazumi Y (2001) The possibikity of the improvement in comprehensive comfortableness by the harmony with visual and auditory stimuli. J Archit Plan Environ Eng (Trans AIJ) 544:55–62Google Scholar
  12. Givoni B, Noguchi M, Saaroni H, Pochter O, Yaacov Y, Feller N, Becker S (2003) Outdoor comfort research issues. Energy Build 35(1):77–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hendler E, Crosbie R (1958) Hardy JD (2003) Measurement of heating of the skin during exposure to infrared radiation. J Appl Physiol 12:177–185Google Scholar
  14. Höppe P (1999) The physiological equivalent temperature—a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment. Int J Biometeorol 43(2):71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Höppe P (2002) Different aspects of assessing indoor and out-door thermal comfort. Energy Build 34:661–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Horikoshi T, Kobayashi Y (1985) Corrected humid operative temperature as an index of combined influences of thermal conditions upon the human body. J Archit Plan Environ Eng (Trans AIJ) 355:12–19Google Scholar
  17. Horikoshi T, Minamino O, Isoda N, Kobayashi Y (1975) Experimental study on influence of thermal conditions and body side conditions upon human body in artificial climate chamber. Trans Archit Inst Jpn 229:129–139Google Scholar
  18. Horikoshi T, Kurazumi Y, Hirayama K, Tsuchikawa T, Kobayashi Y (1989) Indication of the effect of asymmetric thermal radiation of the human physiological and psychological responses. The Second World Congress on Heating, Ventilating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning-CLIMA 2000 III, pp 188–193Google Scholar
  19. Horikoshi T, Kobayashi Y, Tsuchikawa T (1991) Indices of combined and independent effect of thermal environmental variables upon the human body. ASHRAE Trans 97(1):228–238Google Scholar
  20. Humphreys M (1976) Field studies of thermal comfort compared and applied. Build Services Eng 44:5–27Google Scholar
  21. International Journal of Biometeorology (2012) Special issue: Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), International Journal of Biometeorology, vol 56(3). Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  22. Ishii J, Horikoshi T, Kurazumi Y, Nagano K, Fukagawa K (2008) A field survey of thermal comfort in outdoor space. ICB2008 18th International Congress of Biometeorology, Tokyo, Japan, September 22–16: 1–4.Google Scholar
  23. Kántor N, Unger J (2011) Benefits and opportunities of adopting GIS in thermal comfort studies in resting places, An urban park as an example. Landsc Urban Plan 98(1):36–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Knez I, Thorsson S (2006) Influence of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a square. Int J Biometeorol 50(5):258–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kurazumi Y, Horikoshi T, Hirayama K, Tsuchikawa T, Kobayashi Y (1993) The influence of asymmetric and uneven thermal radiation environments upon the human body, In the case of constant operative temperature. J Archit Plan Environ Eng (Trans AIJ) 447:17–26Google Scholar
  26. Kurazumi Y, Saito K, Horikoshi T (1994) The influence of asymmetric thermal radiation environments upon the human body, In the case of constant operative temperature and right and left, back and forth asymmetry. Jpn J Biometeorol 31(2):75–84Google Scholar
  27. Kurazumi Y, Matsubara N, Furukawa N, Fujiwara M, Ue A, Ueki Y, Nagai H, Yamamoto S (1998) Japanese weighting coefficients for calculating mean skin temperature in relation to posture. Jpn J Biometeorol 35(4):121–132Google Scholar
  28. Kurazumi Y, Tsuchikawa T, Torii T, Kakutani K, Matsubara N, Horikoshi T (2004) Weighting coefficients for calculating mean skin temperature when considering convective heat transfer areas. J Human-Environ Syst 7(1):19–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kurazumi Y, Tsuchikawa T, Matsubara N, Horikoshi T (2008) Effect of posture on the heat transfer areas of the human body. Build Environ 43(10):1555–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kurazumi Y, Fukagawa K, Yamato Y, Tobita K, Kondo E, Tsuchikawa T, Horikoshi T, Matsubara N (2011a) Enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature as the outdoor thermal environment evaluation index upon the human body. Build Environ 46(1):12–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kurazumi Y, Tsuchikawa T, Matsubara N, Kondo E, Horikoshi T (2011b) Evaluation of enhanced conduction-corrected modified effective temperature ETFe as the outdoor thermal environment evaluation index. Energy Build 43(10):2925–2937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kuwabara K, Mochida T, Kondo M, Matsunaga K (2001) Measurement of man’s convective heat transfer coefficient by using a thermal manikin in the middle wind velocity region. J Human Living Environ 8(1, 2):27–32Google Scholar
  33. Kuwabara K, Mochida T, Nagano K, Shimakura K (2002) Experiment and evaluation of thermal sensation in outdoor environment. J Human Living Environ 9(1):10–17Google Scholar
  34. Kuwasawa Y, Saito M, Kamata M, Chida Y (1999) Effects of fluctuating air movement on thermal comfort. J Archit Plan Environ Eng (Trans AIJ) 526:37–42Google Scholar
  35. Lin T (2009) Thermal perception, adaptation and attendance in a public square in hot and humid regions. Build Environ 44(10):2017–2026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lin TP, Matzarakis A (2008) Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan. Int J Biometeorol 52(4):281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Matsubara N, Ito K, Gassho A, Kurazumi Y (1995) Importance of nonspecific scale and the additive model in the evaluation study of the combined environment. Arch Complex Environ Stud 7:45–54Google Scholar
  38. Matsubara N, Gassho A, Kurazumi Y, Sawashima T, Yamato Y (2004) Psychological effects of the visual stimuli and the auditory stimuli on thermal sensation. Jpn J Biometeorol 40(s):249–259Google Scholar
  39. Matsubara N, Shimada R, Gassho A, Kurazumi Y, Tobita K (2007) Effect of the addition of the other factor on the evaluation of the experimental combined environment of thermal, visual and acoustic factors—Discussion with “attention”. J Archit Plan Environ Eng (Trans AIJ) 611:83–89Google Scholar
  40. Miyamoto S, Horikoshi T, Hirokawa Y (1998) Projected area factors of the human body at standing posture under different clothing conditions. J Archit Plan Environ Eng (Trans AIJ) 513:47–52Google Scholar
  41. Mochida T (1992) New effective temperature ET*—its characteristics and arguing point for further discussion. Jpn J Biometeorol 29(Suppl):135–139Google Scholar
  42. Mukai A, Horikoshi T (2002) Effect of sea breeze along Nakagawa canel in nagoya on the sensational climate. J Archit Plan Environ Eng (Trans AIJ) 553:37–41Google Scholar
  43. Nagano K, Horikoshi T (2011a) Development of outdoor thermal index indicating universal and separate effects on human thermal comfort. Int J Biometeorol 55(2):219–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nagano K, Horikoshi T (2011b) New index indicating the universal and separate effects on human comfort under outdoor and non-uniform thermal conditions. Energy Build 43(7):1694–1701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nakano J, Tanabe S (2004) Thermal comfort and adaptation in semi-outdoor environments. ASHRAE Trans 110(2):543–553Google Scholar
  46. Nikolopoulou M, Lykoudis S (2006) Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces: analysis across different European countries. Build Environ 41(11):1455–1470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nikolopoulou M, Steemers K (2003) Thermal comfort and psychological adaptation as a guide for designing urban spaces. Energy Build 35(1):95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Nikolopoulou M, Baker N, Steemers K (2001) Thermal comfort in outdoor urban spaces, Understanding the human parameter. Solar Energy 70(3):227–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Oliveira S, Andrade H (2007) An initial assessment of the bioclimatic comfort in an outdoor public space in Lisbon. Int J Biometeorol 52(1):69–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pickup J, de Dear RJ (2000) An Outdoor Thermal Comfort Index (OUT_SET*) - Part I - The Model and its Assumptions, In: de Dear RJ, Kalma JD, Oke TR, Auliciems A (eds) Biometeorology and urban climatology at the turn of the millennium. Selected Papers from the ICB-ICUC’99 conference, Sydney, WCASP-50, WMO/TD No. 1026. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva: 279–283.Google Scholar
  51. Shimada R, Matsubara N, Kurazumi Y, Gassho A, Tobita K (2008) Difference of scales on the evaluation of the experimental combined environment—Discussion with “Attention”. J Archit Plan Environ Eng (Trans AIJ) 628:807–813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Spagnolo J, de Dear RJ (2003) A field study of thermal comfort in outdoor and semi-outdoor environments in subtropical Sydney Australia. Build Environ 38(5):721–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Sprague CH, Munson DM (1974) A composite ensemble method for estimating thermal insulating values of clothing. ASHRAE Trans 80(1):120–129Google Scholar
  54. Sudo Y, Matsubara N, Gasso A, Kurazumi Y, Kohigashi T, Aochi N, Tobita K (2008) Psychological evaluation of the combined environment of color and temperature—results of the experiment considering the factor of attention. J Archit Plan Environ Eng (Trans AIJ) 630:1037–1043CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. VDI (2008) VDI 3787–2, Environmental meteorology—methods for the human biometeorological evaluation of climate and air quality for urban and regional planning at regional level. Part 1: Climate. Beuth, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  56. Watanabe S, Horikoshi T, Tomita A (2010) Measurement of solar radiation absorptamce of clothed human body in outdoor. Jpn J Biometeorol 47(4):165–173Google Scholar
  57. Yin J, Zheng Y, Wu R, Tan J, Ye D, Wang W (2012) An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer. Int J Biometeorol 56(5):941–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshihito Kurazumi
    • 1
  • Jin Ishii
    • 2
  • Emi Kondo
    • 3
  • Kenta Fukagawa
    • 4
  • Zhecho Dimitrov Bolashikov
    • 5
  • Tomonori Sakoi
    • 6
  • Tadahiro Tsuchikawa
    • 7
  • Naoki Matsubara
    • 8
  • Tetsumi Horikoshi
    • 9
  1. 1.School of Life StudiesSugiyama Jogakuen UniversityNagoyaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of EducationGifu UniversityGifuJapan
  3. 3.Nagoya Institute of TechnologyNagoyaJapan
  4. 4.Department of ArchitectureKyushu Sangyo UniversityHigashiJapan
  5. 5.International Centre for Indoor Environment and EnergyTechnical University of DenmarkKongens LyngbyDenmark
  6. 6.International Young Researchers Empowerment CenterShinshu UniversityUedaJapan
  7. 7.School of Human Science & EnvironmentUniversity of HyogoHimejiJapan
  8. 8.Division of Environmental SciencesGraduate School of Kyoto Prefectural UniversitySakyo-kuJapan
  9. 9.Department of Techno-Business AdministrationGraduate School of Nagoya Institute of TechnologyNagoyaJapan

Personalised recommendations