Pollen season and climate: Is the timing of birch pollen release in the UK approaching its limit?
- 547 Downloads
In light of heightened interest in the response of pollen phenology to temperature, we investigated recent changes to the onset of Betula (birch) pollen seasons in central and southern England, including a test of predicted advancement of the Betula pollen season for London. We calculated onset of birch pollen seasons using daily airborne pollen data obtained at London, Plymouth and Worcester, determined trends in the start of the pollen season and compared timing of the birch pollen season with observed temperature patterns for the period 1995–2010. We found no overall change in the onset of birch pollen in the study period although there was evidence that the response to temperature was nonlinear and that a lower asymptotic start of the pollen season may exist. The start of the birch pollen season was strongly correlated with March mean temperature. These results reinforce previous findings showing that the timing of the birch pollen season in the UK is particularly sensitive to spring temperatures. The climate relationship shown here persists over both longer decadal-scale trends and shorter, seasonal trends as well as during periods of ‘sign-switching’ when cooler spring temperatures result in later start dates. These attributes, combined with the wide geographical coverage of airborne pollen monitoring sites, some with records extending back several decades, provide a powerful tool for the detection of climate change impacts, although local site factors and the requirement for winter chilling may be confounding factors.
KeywordsBetula pollen London Plymouth Worcester Phenology Climate change Vernalisation
This work was partly funded by the Copenhagen Global Change Initiative (www.cogci.dk) and the Villum-Kann Rasmussen Foundation through a Post Doc grant to Carsten Ambelas Skjøth and a Royal Society of New Zealand (ISAT) grant to Rewi Newnham. Tim Sparks acknowledges the support of the Technische Universität München – Institute for Advanced Study, funded by the German Excellence Initiative. The authors would like to thank the National Pollen and Aerobiology Research Unit at the University of Worcester who provided the pollen counts, particularly all those staff who are actively involved in producing pollen count data. The authors are also grateful to the Environmental and Public Protection offices, Islington, who operate the pollen trap in North London, to Martin Kent for insightful comments on the manuscript and to Tim Absolom for drafting Fig. 5. Data on birch leafing were kindly supplied by the Woodland Trust.
- BAF (1995) Airborne pollens and spores: a guide to trapping and counting. The British Aerobiology Federation, AylesfordGoogle Scholar
- Cramer W, Bondeau A, Woodward FI, Prentice IC, Betts RA, Brovkin V, Cox PM, Fisher V, Foley JA, Friend AD, Kucharik C, Lomas MR, Ramankutty N, Sitch S, Smith B, White A, Young-Molling C ( 2001) Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: results from six dynamic global vegetation models: Global Change Biology 7:357–373Google Scholar
- Erdtman G (1954) An introduction to pollen analysis. Chronica Botanica, Waltham, MassGoogle Scholar
- Goudie A (1996) The nature of the environment, 3rd edn. Blackwell, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Grime JP, Hodgson JG, Hunt R (1996) Comparative plant ecology. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Hegerl GC, Zwiers FW, Braconnot P, Gillett NP, Luo Y, Marengo Orsini JA, Nicholls N, Penner JE, Stott PA (2007) Understanding and attributing climate change. In: Solomon et al (eds) IPCC Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Cambridge Univ. Press, Ch 9Google Scholar
- Hickler T, Vohland K, Feehan J et al (2012) Projecting tree species-based climate-driven changes in European potential natural vegetation with a generalized dynamic vegetation model. Global Ecology & Biogeography (in press)Google Scholar
- Konijnendijk CC, Nilsson K, Randrup TB, Schipperin J (2005) Urban forest and trees. Springer, Heidelberg, pp 1–520Google Scholar
- Linkosalo T (1999) Regularities and patterns in the spring phenology of some boreal trees. Silva Fennica 33:237–245Google Scholar
- Menzel A, Estrella N (2001) Plant phenological changes. In: Walther G-R, Burga CA, Edwards PJ (eds) “Fingerprints” of climate change—adapted behaviour and shifting species ranges. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York, pp 123–137Google Scholar
- METO (2004) 1971–2000 averages. Met Office, UK. http://www.meto.gov.uk/climate/uk/averages/index.html. Accessed 05 June 2012
- Rodríguez-Rajo FJ, Frenguelli G, Jato V (2003) Effect of air temperature on forecasting the start of the Betula pollen season at two contrasting sites in the South of Europe (1995-2001). Int J Biometeorol 47:117–125Google Scholar
- Skjøth CA, Smith M, Sikoparija B, Stach A, Myszkowska D, Kasprzyk I, Radisic P, Stjepanovic B, Hrga I, Apatini D, Magyar D, Paldy A, Ianovici N (2010) A method for producing airborne pollen source inventories: An example of Ambrosia (ragweed) on the Pannonian Plain. Agr Forest Meteorol 150:1203–1210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- WMO (2010) WMO statement on the status of the global climate in 2009. World Meteorological Organization, report no 1055. Switzerland, Geneva, p 14Google Scholar