Advertisement

International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 56, Issue 6, pp 1011–1023 | Cite as

Lightning safety of animals

  • Chandima Gomes
Original Paper

Abstract

This paper addresses a concurrent multidisciplinary problem: animal safety against lightning hazards. In regions where lightning is prevalent, either seasonally or throughout the year, a considerable number of wild, captive and tame animals are injured due to lightning generated effects. The paper discusses all possible injury mechanisms, focusing mainly on animals with commercial value. A large number of cases from several countries have been analyzed. Economically and practically viable engineering solutions are proposed to address the issues related to the lightning threats discussed.

Keywords

Lightning injury Animal safety Step potential Side flashes Direct strikes Preventive measures 

Notes

Acknowledgement

The authors thankfully acknowledge the invaluable information and materials provided by Mr. Randy Lantz, Ms. Jennifer Niemeyer and Prof. Diana Žele. The Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia is greatly acknowledged for providing all required facilities to complete this study successfully.

References

  1. Anderson RB, Eriksson AJ (1980) Lightning parameters for engineering application. CIGRE Electra 69:65–102Google Scholar
  2. Andrews CJ (1992) Telephone-related lightning injury. Med J Austr 157:823–826Google Scholar
  3. Andrews CJ, Darvaniza M (1989) Telephone-mediated lightning injury: an Australian survey. J Trauma 29(5):665–671CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Appel G (1991) Deaths in swine by a lightning strike in the sty. Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrift 8:187–190Google Scholar
  5. Bedenice D, Hoffman AM, Parrott B, McDonnel J (2001) Vestibular signs associated with suspected lightning strike in two horses. Vet Rec 149(17):519–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Berger G (2007) Lightning-caused accidents and injuries to human, IX International Symposium on Lightning Protection. Fos Do Iguaco, BrazilGoogle Scholar
  7. Berger K, Anderson RB, Kröninger H (1975) Parameters of lightning flashes. CIGRE Electra 41:23–37Google Scholar
  8. Best RH (1967) Lightning stroke in swine. Can Vet J 8(1):23–24Google Scholar
  9. Boeve MH, Huijben R, Grinwis G, Djajadiningrat-Laanen SC (2004) Visual impairment after suspected lightning strike in a herd of Holstein-Friesian cattle. Vet Rec 154:402–404CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brightwell AH (1968) Lightning stroke in livestock. Can Vet J 9:186–188Google Scholar
  11. Cooper MA (1980) Lightning injuries: prognostic signs for death. Ann Emerg Med 9(3):134–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cooray V (2003) The lightning flash. IET, London, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cooray V, Cooray C, Andrews CJ (2007) Lightning caused injuries in humans. J Electrost 65:386–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coorper CJ, Darvaniza M, Mackerras D (1989) Lightning injury: a review of clinical aspects, pathophysiology and treatment. Adv Trauma 4:241–287Google Scholar
  15. Carte AE, Anderson RB, Cooper MA (2002) A large group of children struck by lightning. Ann Emerg Med 39(6):665–670CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Duclos PJ, Sanderson LM (1990) An epidemiological description of lightning-related deaths in the United States. Int J Epidemiol 19:673–679Google Scholar
  17. Elsom DM (2000) Deaths and injuries caused by lightning in the United Kingdom: analysis of two databases. Atmos Res 56:325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Epperly TD, Stewart JR (1989) The physical effects of lightning injury. J Fam Pract 29:267–272Google Scholar
  19. Eriksson AJ, Smith MA (1986) A study of lightning fatalities and related incidents in Southern Africa. Trans SA Inst Elec Eng 163–178Google Scholar
  20. Fahmy FS, Brinsden M, Smith J, Frame JD (1999) Lightning: multisystem group injuries. J Trauma 46(5):937–940CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gomes C, Kadir MZAAb (2011) A theoretical approach to estimate the annual lightning hazards on human beings. Atmos Res 101:719–725. doi: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2011.04.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gomes C, Ahmed M, Abeysinghe K R, Hussain F (2006) Lightning accidents and awareness in South Asia: experience in Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, Proceedings of the 28th International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP), Kanasawa, JapanGoogle Scholar
  23. Heidler F, Diendorfer G, Zischank W (2004) Examples of severe destruction of trees caused by lightning, 27th International Conference on Lightning Protection, Avignon, France, 8a.3Google Scholar
  24. IEC 62305-3 Ed. 1.0 (2006) Protection against lightning—part 3: physical damage to structures and life hazard. International Electrotechnical CommissionGoogle Scholar
  25. Ishikawa T, Ohashi M, Kitagawa N, Nagai Y, Miyazawa T (1985) Experimental study on the lethal-threshold value of multiple successive voltage impulses to rabbits simulating multi-strike lightning flash. Inst J Biometeorol 29(2):157–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Karobath H, Redtenbacher M, Hofecker G, Walde I, Syré G (1977) Causes of death in lightning strokes (originally in German). MMW Munch Med Wochenschr 119(1):29–32Google Scholar
  27. Kitagawa N, Kinoshita K, Ishikawa T (1972) Discharge experiment using dummies and rabbits simulating lightning strokes on human bodies. Int J Biometeor 17:239–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mackerras D (1992) Occurrence of lightning death and injury. In: Andrews et al (eds) Lightning injuries: electrical, medical, and legal aspects. CRC Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Muehlberger PM, Vogt AMM (2001) The long-term consequences of lightning injuries. Burns 27:829–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nagai N, Ishikawa T, Ohashi M, Kitagawa N (1982) Study of lethal effects of multiple-stroke flash. Res Lett Atmos Electr 2:87–90Google Scholar
  31. Norman ME, Albertson D, Younge BR (2001) Ophthalmic manifestations of lightning stroke. Surv Ophthalmol 46(1):19–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ohashi M, Hosomi Y, Fujishiro Y, Muto T (1978) Threshold value of lethal energy of electric discharge to rats. J Toden Hosp 8:71–79 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  33. Ohashi M, Hosomi Y, Fujishiro Y (1981a) Lethal threshold energy of artificial lightning applied on rats: comparison of lethal energy of rats and rabbits. J Toden Hosp 10–11:41–50 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  34. Ohashi M, Hosomi Y, Fujishiro Y, Ishikawa T, Miyazawa T, Kitagawa N, Tsurumi S, Kinoshita K, Nagai Y, Takagi K (1981b) Experimental studies of resuscitation for rabbit after artificial lightning discharge. J Toden Hosp 10–11:51–61Google Scholar
  35. Toepler M (1906) Information on the law of guiding spark formation. Annalen der Physik 21(12):193–22Google Scholar
  36. Van Alstine WG, Widmer WR (2003) Lightning injury in an outdoor swine herd. J Vet Diagn Invest 15:289–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Webb J, Srinivasan J, Fahmy F, Frame JD (1996) Unusual skin injury from lightning. Lancet 347:321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Williams MA (2000) Lightning strike in horses. Compend Contin Educ Pract Vet 22:860–866Google Scholar
  39. Žele D, Bidovec A, Vengušt G (2006) Atmospheric flash injuries in roe deer (capreolus capreolus). Acta Veterinaria Hungarica 54(1):43–49CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zimmermann C, Coorper MA, Holle RL (2002) Lightning safety guidelines. Ann Emerg Med 39(6):660–665CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Centre of Excellence on Lightning Protection (CELP)Universiti Putra MalaysiaSerdangMalaysia

Personalised recommendations