International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 56, Issue 2, pp 319–332

Convective heat transfer from a nude body under calm conditions: assessment of the effects of walking with a thermal manikin

  • A. Virgílio M. Oliveira
  • Adélio R. Gaspar
  • Sara C. Francisco
  • Divo A. Quintela
Original Paper


The present experimental work is dedicated to the analysis of the effect of walking on the thermal insulation of the air layer (Ia) and on the convective heat transfer coefficients (hconv) of the human body. Beyond the standing static posture, three step rates were considered: 20, 30 and 45 steps/min. This corresponds to walking speeds of approximately 0.23, 0.34 and 0.51 m/s, respectively. The experiments took place in a climate chamber with an articulated thermal manikin with 16 independent parts. The indoor environment was controlled through the inner wall temperatures since the objective of the tests was restricted to the influence of the walking movements under calm conditions. Five set points were selected: 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30°C, and the operative temperature within the test chamber varied between 11.9 and 29.6°C. The highest and lowest Ia values obtained were equal to 0.87 and 0.71 clo, respectively, and the reduction in insulation due to walking ranged between 9.8 and 11.5%. The convective coefficients (hconv) for the whole body and for the different body segments were also determined for each step rate. In the case of the whole body, for the standing static reference posture, the mean value of hconv was equal to 3.3 W/m2°C and a correlation [Nu = Nu(Gr)] for natural convection is also presented in good agreement with previous results. For the other postures, the values of hconv were equal to 3.7, 3.9 and 4.2 W/m2°C, respectively for 20, 30 and 45 steps/min.


Convective heat transfer coefficients Thermal insulation of the air layer Thermal manikin 

Supplementary material

484_2011_436_MOESM1_ESM.doc (80 kb)
ESM 1(DOC 80 kb)


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Copyright information

© ISB 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Virgílio M. Oliveira
    • 1
    • 2
  • Adélio R. Gaspar
    • 1
  • Sara C. Francisco
    • 1
  • Divo A. Quintela
    • 1
  1. 1.ADAI, Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of Coimbra, Pólo IICoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Coimbra Institute of EngineeringPolytechnic Institute of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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