International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 45–61 | Cite as

Vertical gradient of climate change and climate tourism conditions in the Black Forest

  • Christina Endler
  • Karoline Oehler
  • Andreas Matzarakis
Original Paper


Due to the public discussion about global and regional warming, the regional climate and the modified climate conditions are analyzed exemplarily for three different regions in the southern Black Forest (southwest Germany). The driving question behind the present study was how can tourism adapt to modified climate conditions and associated changes to the tourism potential in low mountain ranges. The tourism potential is predominately based on the attractiveness of natural resources being climate-sensitive. In this study, regional climate simulations (A1B) are analyzed by using the REMO model. To analyze the climatic tourism potential, the following thermal, physical and aesthetic parameters are considered for the time span 1961–2050: thermal comfort, heat and cold stress, sunshine, humid–warm conditions (sultriness), fog, precipitation, storm, and ski potential (snow cover). Frequency classes of these parameters expressed as a percentage are processed on a monthly scale. The results are presented in form of the Climate-Tourism-Information-Scheme (CTIS). Due to warmer temperatures, winters might shorten while summers might lengthen. The lowland might be more affected by heat and sultriness (e.g., Freiburg due to the effects of urban climate). To adapt to a changing climate and tourism, the awareness of both stakeholders and tourists as well as the adaptive capability are essential.


Physiologically equivalent temperature Climatic tourism potential REMO CTIS Low mountain ranges 



This research study is supported by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung, BMBF) under grant no. 01LS05019 within the scope of the research initiative „klimazwei“. Thanks to the German Weather Service for providing climate data.


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Copyright information

© ISB 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christina Endler
    • 1
  • Karoline Oehler
    • 1
  • Andreas Matzarakis
    • 1
  1. 1.Meteorological InstituteAlbert-Ludwigs-University of FreiburgFreiburgGermany

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