Lack of evidence for meteorological effects on infradian dynamics of testosterone

  • Peter CelecEmail author
  • Lucia Smreková
  • Daniela Ostatníková
  • Zlata Čabajová
  • Július Hodosy
  • Matúš Kúdela
Original Paper


Climatic factors are known to influence the endocrine system. Previous studies have shown that circannual seasonal variations of testosterone might be partly explained by changes in air temperature. Whether infradian variations are affected by meteorological factors is unknown. To analyze possible effects of meteorological parameters on infradian variations of salivary testosterone levels in both sexes, daily salivary testosterone levels were measured during 1 month in 14 men and 17 women. A correlation analysis between hormonal levels and selected meteorological parameters was performed. The results indicate that high testosterone levels are loosely associated with cold, sunny and dry weather in both sexes. However, only the correlations between testosterone and air temperature (men) and actual cloudiness (women) were statistically significant (p < 0,05). Although some correlations reached the level of statistical significance, the effects of selected meteorological parameters on salivary testosterone levels remain unclear. Further longer-term studies concentrating on air temperature, cloudiness and average relative humidity in relation to the sex hormone axis are needed.


Salivary testosterone Weather Effective temperature Humidity Cloudiness 



The authors are grateful to the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute for providing the data on meteorological parameters and especially to the volunteers for their patience and endurance. This study was supported by grants from the Scientific Grant Agency of Ministry of Education in Slovak Republic VEGA 1/3420/06, VEGA 1/3438/06, AV 4/0038/07, VEGA 1/0305/09, and the Ministry of Health of the Slovak republic 2006/22-UK-01.


  1. Berg SJ, Wynne-Edwards KE (2001) Changes in testosterone, cortisol, and estradiol levels in men becoming fathers. Mayo Clin Proc 76(6):582–592. doi: 10.4065/76.6.582 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Brenner IK, Zamecnik J, Shek PN, Shephard RJ (1997) The impact of heat exposure and repeated exercise on circulating stress hormones. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol 76(5):445–454. doi: 10.1007/s004210050274 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Briggs M, Briggs M (1972) Testosterone and the tropics. Lancet 2(7791):1374. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(72)92827-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cabajova Z, Snopkova Z, Traubner P, Repiska V (1999) Effect of weather on the occurrence of cerebral stroke. Bratisl Lek Listy (Tlacene Vyd) 100(5):267–270Google Scholar
  5. Celec P, Ostatnikova D, Putz Z, Hodosy J, Bursky P, Starka L, Hampl R, Kudela M (2003) Circatrigintan cycle of salivary testosterone in human male. Biol Rhythm Res 34:305–315. doi: 10.1076/brhm.34.3.305.18807 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dabbs JM Jr, de La RD (1991) Salivary testosterone measurements among women: relative magnitude of circadian and menstrual cycles. Horm Res 35(5):182–184. doi: 10.1159/000181899 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hermanussen M, Jensen F, Hirsch N, Friedel K, Kroger B, Lang R, Just S, Ulmer J, Schaff M, Ahnert P (1995) Acute and chronic effects of winter swimming on LH, FSH, prolactin, growth hormone, TSH, cortisol, serum glucose and insulin. Arctic Med Res 54(1):45–51PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Mikulecky M, Rovensky J (2000) Gout attacks and lunar cycle. Med Hypotheses 55(1):24–25. doi: 10.1054/mehy.1999.0973 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Ostatnikova D, Putz Z, Matejka P, Orszagh M (1995) The variation of the level of salivary testosterone in men and women during a year. Prakt Gynek 2:45–48Google Scholar
  10. Plymate SR, Tenover JS, Bremner WJ (1989) Circadian variation in testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, and calculated non-sex hormone-binding globulin bound testosterone in healthy young and elderly men. J Androl 10(5):366–371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Putz Z, Hampl R, Veleminsky J, Vanuga A, Kreze A, Starka L (1983) Levels of 4 hormonal steroids in plasma and saliva and the clinical significance of their determination. Cas Lek Cesk 122(20):618–621PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Savourey G, Caravel JP, Barnavol B, Bittel JH (1994) Thyroid hormone changes in a cold air environment after local cold acclimation. J Appl Physiol 76(5):1963–1967PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Sawhney RC, Malhotra AS, Prasad R, Pal K, Kumar R, Bajaj AC (1998) Pituitary-gonadal hormones during prolonged residency in Antarctica. Int J Biometeorol 42(1):51–54. doi: 10.1007/s004840050083 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Shimizu A (2003) Effect of photoperiod and temperature on gonadal activity and plasma steroid levels in a reared strain of the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) during different phases of its annual reproductive cycle. Gen Comp Endocrinol 131(3):310–324. doi: 10.1016/S0016-6480(03)00026-1 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Smals AG, Kloppenborg PW, Benraad TJ (1976) Circannual cycle in plasma testosterone levels in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 42(5):979–982CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Svartberg J, Jorde R, Sundsfjord J, Bonaa KH, Barrett-Connor E (2003) Seasonal variation of testosterone and waist to hip ratio in men: the Tromso study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88(7):3099–3104. doi: 10.1210/jc.2002-021878 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Weizenbaum F (1976) Effect of environmental lighting on sexual behavior and testosterone levels of female rats. Physiol Behav 17(6):909–913. doi: 10.1016/0031-9384(76)90007-X CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© ISB 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Celec
    • 1
    • 2
    • 6
    Email author
  • Lucia Smreková
    • 2
  • Daniela Ostatníková
    • 3
  • Zlata Čabajová
    • 4
  • Július Hodosy
    • 3
  • Matúš Kúdela
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of Molecular BiologyComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovakia
  2. 2.Institute of PathophysiologyComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovakia
  3. 3.Institute of PhysiologyComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovakia
  4. 4.Institute of Human BioclimatologySlovak Academy of SciencesBratislavaSlovakia
  5. 5.Department of ZoologyComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovakia
  6. 6.Department of Molecular Biology & Institute of PathophysiologyComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovak Republic

Personalised recommendations