Integration of flowering dates in phenology and pollen counts in aerobiology: analysis of their spatial and temporal coherence in Germany (1992–1999)
- 345 Downloads
We studied the possibility of integrating flowering dates in phenology and pollen counts in aerobiology in Germany. Data were analyzed for three pollen types (Betula, Poaceae, Artemisia) at 51 stations with pollen traps, and corresponding phenological flowering dates for 400 adjacent stations (< 25 km) for the years 1992–1993 and 1997–1999. The spatial and temporal coherence of these data sets was investigated by comparing start and peak of the pollen season with local minima and means of plant flowering. Our study revealed that start of birch pollen season occurred on average 5.7 days earlier than local birch flowering. For mugwort and grass, the pollen season started on average after local flowering was observed; mugwort pollen was found 4.8 days later and grass pollen season started almost on the same day (0.6 days later) as local flowering. Whereas the peak of the birch pollen season coincided with the mean flowering dates (0.4 days later), the pollen peaks of the other two species took place much later. On average, the peak of mugwort pollen occurred 15.4 days later than mean local flowering, the peak of grass pollen catches followed 22.6 days after local flowering. The study revealed a great temporal divergence between pollen and flowering dates with an irregular spatial pattern across Germany. Not all pollen catches could be explained by local vegetation flowering. Possible reasons include long-distance transport, pollen contributions of other than phenologically observed species and methodological constraints. The results suggest that further research is needed before using flowering dates in phenology to extrapolate pollen counts.
KeywordsFlowering Long-range transport Phenology Pollen Spatial variability
The authors thank the German Meteorological Service for providing phenological and climate data and the Pollen Informationsdienst for providing German pollen data.
- Deutscher Wetterdienst (1991) Anleitung für die phänologischen Beobachter des deutschen Wetterdienstes (BAPH). Vorschriften und Betriebsunterlagen. Deutscher Wetterdienst 17 (VuB17)Google Scholar
- Huynen M, Menne B, Behrendt H, Bertollini R, Bonin S, Brandao R, Brown-Fahrländer C, Clot B, D’Ambrosio C, De Nuntiis P, Ebi KL, Emberlin J, Erdei Orbanne E, Galan C, Jäger S, Kovats S, Mandrioli P, Martens P, Menzel A, Nyenzi B, Rantio-Lehtimäki A, Ring J, Rybnicek O, Traidl-Hoffmann C, Van Vliet A, Voigt T, Weiland S, Wickman M (2003) Phenology and Human Health: Allergic disorders. Report of a WHO meeting. Rome, Italy, 16–17 January 2003Google Scholar
- Jager S, Nilsson S, Berggren B, Pessi AM, Helander M, Ramfjord H (1996) Trends of some airborne tree pollen in the Nordic countries and Austria, 1980–1993 - A comparison between Stockholm, Trondheim, Turku and Vienna. Grana 35:171–178Google Scholar
- Menzel A, Estrella N (2001) Plant phenological changes. In: Walther GR, Burga CA, Edwards PJ (Eds.) “Fingerprints” of Climate Change - Adapted behaviour and shifting species ranges. Kluwer/Plenum, New York, pp 123–137Google Scholar
- Rapiejko P (1995) Pollen Monitoring in Poland. In: Spiewak R (ed) Pollen and pollinosis: current problems. Institute of Agricultural Medicine, Lublin, pp 18–20Google Scholar
- Rousseau DD, Duzer D, Cambon GV, Jolly D, Poulsen U, Ferrier J, Schevin P, Gros R (2003) Long distance transport of pollen to Greenland. Geophys Res Lett 30Google Scholar
- Rousseau DD, Duzer D, Etienne JL, Cambon G, Jolly D, Ferrier J, Schevin P (2004) Pollen record of rapidly changing air trajectories to the North Pole. J Geophys Res-Atmos 109Google Scholar
- Spieksma FTM, Emberlin JC, Hjelmroos M, Jager S, Leuschner RM (1995) Atmospheric birch (Betula) pollen in Europe - Trends and Fluctuations in Annual Quantities and the Starting Dates of the Seasons. Grana 34:51–57Google Scholar
- Spieksma FTM, Corden JM, Detandt M, Millington WM, Nikkels H, Nolard N, Schoenmakers CHH, Wachter R, de Weger LA, Willems R, Emberlin J (2003) Quantitative trends in annual totals of five common airborne pollen types (Betula, Quercus, Poaceae, Urtica, and Artemisia), at five pollen-monitoring stations in western Europe. Aerobiologia 19:171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar