International Journal of Biometeorology

, Volume 49, Issue 3, pp 184–188 | Cite as

Heat requirement for the onset of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in several sites in Andalusia and the effect of the expected future climate change

  • C. Galán
  • H. García-Mozo
  • L. Vázquez
  • L. Ruiz
  • C. Díaz de la Guardia
  • M. M. Trigo
Original Article


Olives are one of the largest crops in the Mediterranean region, especially in Andalusia, in southern Spain. A thermal model has been developed for forecasting the start of the olive tree pollen season at five localities in Andalusia: Cordoba, Priego, Jaen, Granada and Malaga using airborne pollen and meteorological data from 1982 to 2001. Threshold temperatures varied between 5°C and 12.5°C depending on bio-geographical characteristics. The external validity of the results was tested using the data for the year 2002 as an independent variable and it confirmed the model’s accuracy with only a few days difference from predicted values. All the localities had increasingly earlier start dates during the study period. This could confirm that olive flower phenology can be considered as a sensitive indicator of the effects of climate fluctuations in the Mediterranean area. The theoretical impact of the predicted climatic warming on the olive’s flowering phenology at the end of the century is also proposed by applying Regional Climate Model data. A general advance, from 1 to 3 weeks could be expected, although this advance will be more pronounced in mid-altitude inland areas.


Olea europaea Pollen Aerobiology Threshold temperature Climate change 



The authors wish to thank to the Climate Impacts LINK Project for providing HadCM3 climatic data (contract EPG 1/1/124).


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Copyright information

© ISB 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Galán
    • 1
  • H. García-Mozo
    • 1
  • L. Vázquez
    • 1
  • L. Ruiz
    • 2
  • C. Díaz de la Guardia
    • 3
  • M. M. Trigo
    • 4
  1. 1.Departamento de Biología VegetalUniversidad de CórdobaCórdobaSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Biología VegetalUniversidad de JaénJaénSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Biología VegetalUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain
  4. 4.Departamento de Biología VegetalUniversidad de MálagaMálagaSpain

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