Der Schmerz

, Volume 26, Issue 3, pp 297–310 | Cite as

Medikamentöse Therapie des Fibromyalgiesyndroms

Systematische Übersicht und Metaanalyse
  • C. Sommer
  • W. Häuser
  • R. Alten
  • F. Petzke
  • M. Späth
  • T. Tölle
  • N. Üçeyler
  • A. Winkelmann
  • E. Winter
  • K.J. Bär
Schwerpunkt

Zusammenfassung

Hintergrund

Die planmäßige Aktualisierung der S3-Leitlinie zum Fibromyalgiesyndrom (FMS; AWMF-Registernummer 041/004) wurde ab März 2011 vorgenommen.

Material und Methoden

Die Leitlinie wurde unter Koordination der Deutschen Interdisziplinären Vereinigung für Schmerztherapie (DIVS) von 9 wissenschaftlichen Fachgesellschaften und 2 Patientenselbsthilfeorganisationen entwickelt. Acht Arbeitsgruppen mit insgesamt 50 Mitgliedern wurden ausgewogen in Bezug auf Geschlecht, medizinischen Versorgungsbereich, potenzielle Interessenkonflikte und hierarchische Position im medizinischen bzw. wissenschaftlichen System besetzt.

Die Literaturrecherche erfolgte über die Datenbanken Medline, PsycInfo, Scopus und Cochrane Library (bis Dezember 2010). Die Graduierung der Evidenzstärke erfolgte nach dem Schema des Oxford Center for Evidence Based Medicine. Grundlage der Empfehlungen waren die Evidenzstärke, die Wirksamkeit (Metaanalyse der Zielvariablen Schmerz, Schlaf, Müdigkeit und gesundheitsbezogene Lebensqualität), die Akzeptanz (Abbruchrate in Studien), Risiken (Nebenwirkungen) und die Anwendbarkeit der Therapieverfahren im deutschen Gesundheitssystem. Die Formulierung und Graduierung der Empfehlungen erfolgte in einem mehrstufigen, formalisierten Konsensusverfahren. Die Leitlinie wurde von den Vorständen der beteiligten Fachgesellschaften begutachtet.

Ergebnisse und Schlussfolgerung

Amitriptylin und – bei komorbiden depressiven Störungen oder generalisierter Angststörung – Duloxetin werden empfohlen. Der Off-label-Gebrauch von Duloxetin oder Pregabalin kann im Falle von fehlenden komorbiden depressiven Störungen oder fehlender generalisierter Angststörung erwogen werden. Starke Opioide werden nicht empfohlen.

Schlüsselwörter

Fibromyalgiesyndrom Systematische Übersicht Metaanalyse Leitlinie Multimodale Therapie 

Drug therapy of fibromyalgia syndrome

Systematic review, meta-analysis and guideline

Abstract

Background

The scheduled update to the German S3 guidelines on fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) by the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies (“Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaften”, AWMF; registration number 041/004) was planned starting in March 2011.

Materials and methods

The development of the guidelines was coordinated by the German Interdisciplinary Association for Pain Therapy (“Deutsche Interdisziplinären Vereinigung für Schmerztherapie”, DIVS), 9 scientific medical societies and 2 patient self-help organizations. Eight working groups with a total of 50 members were evenly balanced in terms of gender, medical field, potential conflicts of interest and hierarchical position in the medical and scientific fields.

Literature searches were performed using the Medline, PsycInfo, Scopus and Cochrane Library databases (until December 2010). The grading of the strength of the evidence followed the scheme of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. The recommendations were based on level of evidence, efficacy (meta-analysis of the outcomes pain, sleep, fatigue and health-related quality of life), acceptability (total dropout rate), risks (adverse events) and applicability of treatment modalities in the German health care system. The formulation and grading of recommendations was accomplished using a multi-step, formal consensus process. The guidelines were reviewed by the boards of the participating scientific medical societies.

Results and conclusion

Amitriptyline and—in case of comorbid depressive disorder or generalized anxiety disorder—duloxetine are recommended. Off-label use of duloxetine and pregabalin can be considered in case of no comorbid mental disorder. Strong opioids are not recommended.

The English full-text version of this article is available at SpringerLink (under “Supplemental”).

Keywords

Fibromyalgia syndrome Review, systematic Meta-analysis Guideline Combined modality therapy 

Supplementary material

482_2012_1172_MO1_ESM.pdf (560 kb)
English version of "Medikamentöse Therapie des Fibromyalgiesyndroms" (PDF 0,6 MB)
482_2012_1172_MO2_ESM.pdf (415 kb)
Evidenzbericht: Forest Plots der standardisierten Mittelwertdifferenzen von experimenteller Gruppe versus Kontrollgruppe bei ausgewählten Zielvariablen am Therapieende und bei Nachuntersuchungen (PDF 0,4 MB)
482_2012_1172_MO3_ESM.pdf (430 kb)
Evidence report: Forest Plots of standardised mean differences between experimental groups versus controls on selected outcomes at final treatment and at follow up (PDF 0,4 MB)
482_2012_1172_MO4_ESM.pdf (299 kb)
Evidenzbericht: Tabellen - Charakteristiken der Studien, die in qualitative und/oder quantitative Analyse einbezogen wurden (PDF 0,3 MB)
482_2012_1172_MO5_ESM.pdf (676 kb)
Evidence report: Tables - Characteristics of studies included into qualitative and/or quantitative analysis (PDF 0,7 MB)

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Anderberg UM, Marteinsdottir I, Knorring L von (2000) Citalopram in patients with fibromyalgia – a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Pain 4:27–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Andrade C, Sandarsh S, Chethan KB, Nagesh KS (2010) Serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and abnormal bleeding: a review for clinicians and a reconsideration of mechanisms. J Clin Psychiatry 71:1565–1575Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Arnold LM, Hess EV, Hudson JI et al (2002) A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, flexible-dose study of fluoxetine in the treatment of women with fibromyalgia. Am J Med 112:191–197PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arnold LM, Lu Y, Crofford LJ et al (2004) A double-blind, multicenter trial comparing duloxetine with placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients with or without major depressive disorder. Arthritis Rheum 50:2974–2984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Arnold LM, Rosen A, Pritchett YL et al (2005) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine in the treatment of women with fibromyalgia with or without major depressive disorder. Pain 119:5–15PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Arnold LM, Goldenberg DL, Stanford SB et al (2007) Gabapentin in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Arthritis Rheum 56:1336–1344PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Arnold LM, Russell IJ, Diri EW et al (2008) A 14-week, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled monotherapy trial of pregabalin in patients with fibromyalgia. J Pain 9:792–805Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Arnold LM, Clauw D, Wang F et al (2010a) Flexible dosed duloxetine in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Rheumatol 37:2578–2586Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Arnold LM, Gendreau RM, Palmer RH et al (2010b) Efficacy and safety of milnacipran 100 mg/day in patients with fibromyalgia: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 62:2745–2756PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arnold LM, Chatamra K, Hirsch I, Stoker M (2010c) Safety and efficacy of esreboxetine in patients with fibromyalgia: An 8-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Clin Ther 32:1618–1632PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ataoglu S, Ataoglu A, Erdogan F, Sarac J (1997) Comparison of paroxetine, amitriptyline in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Turk J Med Sci 27:535–539Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    AWMF (o J) Leitlinie Angststörungen. http://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/028-022.htmlGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Azad KAK, Alam MN, Haq SA et al (2000) Vegetarian diet in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Bangladesh Medical Research Council Bulletin 26:41–47PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bennett RM, Gatter RA, Campbell SM (1988) A comparison of cyclobenzaprine and placebo in the management of fibrositis. A double-blind controlled study. Arthritis Rheum 31:1535–1542PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bennett RM, Clark SC, Walczyk J (1998) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of growth hormone in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Am J Med 104:227–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bennett RM, Kamin M, Karim R, Rosenthal N (2003) Tramadol and acetaminophen combination tablets in the treatment of fibromyalgia pain: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Med 114:537–545PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bennett RM, Schein J, Kosinski MR et al (2005) Impact of fibromyalgia pain on health-related quality of life before and after treatment with tramadol/acetaminophen. Arthritis Rheum 53:519–527 (Doppelpublikation)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bessette L, Carette S, Fosse A (1998) A placebo controlled crossover trial of subcutaneous salmon calcitonin in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia. Scand J Rheumatol 27:112–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Biasi G, Manca S, Manganelli S, Marcolongo R (1998) Tramadol in the fibromyalgia syndrome: a controlled clinical trial versus placebo. Int J Clin Pharmacol Res 18:13–19 (experimentelle Studie)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bibolotti E, Borghi C, Pasculii E et al (1986) The management of fibrositis. A double-blind comparison of maprotiline, chlomipramine and placebo. Clin Trials 23:269–280 (berichtete Endpunkte für Analyse nicht geeignet)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Branco JC, Zachrisson O, Perrot S et al (2010) A European multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled monotherapy clinical trial of milnacipran in treatment of fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 37:851–859Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Callejas Rubio JL, Fernández Moyano A, Navarro Hidalgo D, Palmero Palmero C (2003) Percutaneous fentanyl in fibromyalgia. Med Clin (Barc) 120:358–359Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Cantini F, Bellandi F, Niccoli L et al (1994) Fluoxetin combined with cyclobenzaprine in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Minerva Med 85:97–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Capaci K, Hepgüler S (2002) Comparison of the effects of amitriptyline and paroxetine in the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome. Pain Clinic 14:223–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Carette S, McCain GA, Bell DA, Fam AG (1986) Evaluation of amitriptyline in primary fibrositis. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arthritis Rheum 29:655–659PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Carette S, Bell MJ, Reynolds WJ et al (1994) Comparison of amitriptyline, cyclobenzaprine, and placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 37:32–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Carette S, Oakson G, Guimont C, Steriade M (1995) Sleep electroencephalography and the clinical response to amitriptyline in patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 38:1211–1217PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Caruso I, Sarzi Puttini PC, Boccassini L et al (1987) Double-blind study of dothiepin versus placebo in the treatment of primary fibromyalgia syndrome. J Int Med Res 15:154–159Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Chappell AS, Littlejohn G, Kajdasz DK et al (2009) A 1-year safety and efficacy study of duloxetine in patients with fibromyalgia. Clin J Pain 25:365–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Chappell AS, Bradley LA, Wiltse C et al (2009) A six-month double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial of duloxetine for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Int J Gen Med 1:91–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Clark S, Tindall E, Bennett RM (1985) A double blind crossover trial of prednisone versus placebo in the treatment of fibrositis. J Rheumatol 12:980–983Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Clauw DJ, Mease P, Palmer RH et al (2008) Milnacipran for the treatment of fibromyalgia in adults: a 15-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose clinical trial. Clin Ther 30:1988–2004PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Crofford LJ, Rowbotham MC, Mease PJ et al (2005) Pregabalin for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arthritis Rheum 52:1264–1273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Crofford LJ, Mease PJ, Simpson SL et al (2008) Fibromyalgia relapse evaluation and efficacy for durability of meaningful relief (FREEDOM): a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with pregabalin. Pain 136:419–431 (Studiendesign nicht für Metaanalyse geeignet)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Cuatrecasas G, Gonzalez MJ, Alegre C et al (2010) High prevalence of growth hormone deficiency in severe fibromyalgia syndromes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 95:4331–4337Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gynäkologie und Geburtshilfe. Hormontherapie (HT) in der Peri- und Postmenopause. http://www.awmf.org/leitlinien/detail/ll/015-062.htmlGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Distler O, Eich W, Dokoupilova E et al (2010) Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of terguride in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: results of a twelve-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Arthritis Rheum 62:291–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Drewes HM (1991) Zopiclone in the treatment of sleep abnormalities in fibromyalgia. Scand J Rheumatol 20:288–293PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Eksioglu E, Yazar D, Bal A et al (2007) Effects of Stanger bath therapy on fibromyalgia. Clin Rheumatol 26:691–694PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Erhan E, Uyar M, Turan et al (2000) Ağrı. Fibromyalji tedavisinde amitriptilin ve fluvoksaminin karşılaştırılması 1:32–36 (türkisch; nur Abstract erhältich; Studienautoren nicht per E-Mail erreichbar)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Färber L, Stratz T, Brückle W et al (2000) Efficacy and tolerability of tropisetron in primary fibromyalgia – a highly selective and competitive 5-HT3 receptor antagonist. German Fibromyalgia Study Group. Scand J Rheumatol Suppl 113:49–54PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fernández-Rodriguez A, Hernánz-Mediano W, Gutierrez-Rubio A, et al (1996) Comparison of tenoxicam and bromazepan in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain 65:221–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Finckh A, Berner IC, Aubry-Rozier L (2005) A randomized controlled trial of de-hydroepiandrosterone in postmenopausal women with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 32:1336–1340Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fors EA, Sexton H, Gotestam KG (2002) The effect of guided imagery and amitriptyline on daily fibromyalgia pain: a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. J Psychiatr Res 36:179–187 (Kombination AMT mit geleiteter Imagination)Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Fosaluzza V, Vita S de (1992) Combined therapy with cyclobenzaprine and ibuprofen in primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Int J Clin Pharm Res 12:99–102Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Garcia J, Simon MA, Duran M et al (2006) Differential efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral intervention versus pharmacological treatment in the management of fibromyalgic syndrome. Psychol Health Med 11:498–506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gendreau RM, Thorn MD, Gendreau JF et al (2005) Efficacy of milnacipran in patients with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 32:1975–1985Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Giordano N, Geraci S, Santacroce C et al (1999) Efficacy and tolerability of paroxetine in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a single-blind study. Curr Ther Res 60:696–702 (Endpunktdarstellung nicht verwertbar)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Ginsberg F, Mancaux A, Joos E (1996) A randomized placebo-controlled trial of sustained-release amitriptyline in primary fibromyalgia. J Musculoskel Pain 4:37–47Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Ginsberg F, Joos E, Geczy J et al (1998) A pilot randomized placebo-controlled study of pirlindole in the treatment of primary fibromyalgia. J Musculoskelet Pain 6:6–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Glaxo Protocol No ROF102100. A randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled, parallel group study to investigate the safty and efficacy of controlled-release ropinirole (CR) (1–24 mg) administered once daily for 12 weeks in subjects with fibromyalgia. http://www.clinicalstudyresults.org/documents/company-study_5744_0.pdf. Zugegriffen: 9. August 2010Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Goldenberg DL, Felson DT, Dinerman H (1986) A randomized, controlled trial of amitriptyline and naproxen in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 29:1371–1377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Goldenberg D, Mayskiy M, Mossey C et al (1996) A randomized, double-blind crossover trial of fluoxetine and amitriptyline in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Arthritis Rheum 39:1852PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    González-Viejo MA, Avellanet M, Hernández-Morcuende MI (2005) A comparative study of fibromyalgia treatment: ultrasonography and physiotherapy versus sertraline treatment. Ann Readapt Med Phys 48:610–615 (französisch)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gronblad M, Nykanen J, Konttinen Y (1993) Effect of zopiclone on sleep quality, morning stiffness, widespread tenderness and pain and general discomfort in primary fibromyalgia patients. A double-blind randomized trial. Clin Rheumatol 12:186–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Gülec H, Capkin E, Sayar K (2007) The evaluation of the effectiveness of amitriptyline versus venlafaxine in female patients diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome. Klinik Psikofarmakoloji Buelteni 17:68–73 (türkisch)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Gür A, Karakoc M, Nas K et al (2002) Effects of low power laser and low dose amitriptyline therapy on clinical symptoms and quality of life in fibromyalgia: a single-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Rheumatol Int 22:188–193PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hamaty D, Valentine JL, Howard R et al (1989) The plasma endorphin, prostaglandin and catecholamine profile of patients with fibrositis treated with cyclobenzaprine and placebo: a 5-month study. J Rheumatol Suppl 19:164–168Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Hannonen P, Malminiemi K, Yli-Kerttula U et al (1998) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of moclobemide and amitriptyline in the treatment of fibromyalgia in females without psychiatric disorder. Br J Rheumtol 37:1279–1286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Häuser W, Bernardy K, Uçeyler N, Sommer C (2009) Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with gabapentin and pregabalin – a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Pain 145:69–81PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Heymann RE, Helfenstein M, Feldman D(2001) A double-blind, randomized, controlled study of amitriptyline, nortriptyline and placebo in patients with fibromyalgia. An analysis of outcome measures. Clin Exp Rheumatol 19:697–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Holman AJ, Myers RR (2005) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pramipexole, a dopamine agonist, in patients with fibromyalgia receiving concomitant medications. Arthritis Rheum 52:2495–505PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hrycaj P, Stratz T, Mennet P (1996) Pathogenetic aspects of responsiveness to ondansetron (5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 receptor antagonist) in patients with primary fibromyalgia syndrome – a preliminary study. J Rheumatol 23:1418–1423Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hussain SA, Al-Khalifa II, Jasim NA, Gorial FI (2010) Adjuvant use of melatonin for treatment of fibromyalgia. J Pineal Res 50:267–271. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600–079X.2010.00836.xGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Isomeri R, Mikkelsson M, Latikka P, Kammonen K (1993) Effects of amitriptyline and cardiovascular fitness training on pain in patients with primary fibromyalgia. J Muscul Pain 1:253–260 (Kombination von AMT mit Stretching)Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Jaeschke R, Adachi J, Guyatt G et al (1991) Clinical usefulness of amitriptyline in fibromyalgia: the results of 23 N-of-1 randomized controlled trials. J Rheumatol 18:447–451 (berichtete Endpunkte für Analyse nicht geeignet)Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Jang ZY, Li CD, Qiu L et al (2010) Combination of acupuncture, cupping and medicine for treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome: a multi-central randomized controlled trial. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 30:265–269 (Chinesisch; berichtete Endpunkte laut englischsprachigem Abstract nicht für Analyse geeignet)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Joshi MN, Joshi R, Jain AP (2009) Affect of amitriptyline vs. physiotherapy in management of fibromyalgia syndrome: what predicts a clinical benefit? J Postgrad Med 55:185–189 (keine Randomisierung)Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Kempenaers C, Simenon G, Vander Elst M (1994) Effect of an antidiencephalon immune serum on pain and sleep in primary fibromyalgia. Neuropsychobiology 30:66–72PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kendall SA, Schaadt ML, Graff LB et al (2004) No effect of antiviral (valacyclovir) treatment in fibromyalgia: a double blind, randomized study. J Rheumatol 31:783–784Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lowe JC, Reichman AJ, Yellin BA (1997) The process of change during T3 treatment for euthyroid fibromyalgia: a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study. Clin Bulletin Myofas Ther 2:91–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Lowe JC, Garrison R, Reichman AJ et al (1997) Effectiveness and safety of T3 (triiodothyronine) therapy for euthyroid fibromyalgia: a double-blind placebo-controlled response-driven crossover study. Clin Bulletin Myofas Ther 2:31–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    McCleane G (2000) Does intravenous lidocaine reduce fibromyalgia pain? A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled cross-over study. Pain Clinic 12:181–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mease PJ, Russell IJ, Arnold LM et al (2008) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial of pregabalin in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 35:502–514Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mease PJ, Clauw DJ, Gendreau RM et al (2009) The efficacy and safety of milnacipran for treatment of fibromyalgia. a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Rheumatol 36:398–409Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Moldofsky H, Lue FA, Mously C (1996) The effect of zolpidem in patients with fibromyalgia: a dose ranging, double blind, placebo controlled, modified crossover study. J Rheumatol 23:529–533Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Moldofsky H, Inhaber NH, Guinta DR, Alvarez-Horine SB (2010) Effects of sodium oxybate on sleep physiology and sleep/wake-related symptoms in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. J Rheumatol 37:2156–2166Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Müller A, Rempp C, Kopferschmitt J et al (2005) Effects of intravenous ketamine administered for three days in patients with fibromyalgic pain: double-blind, crossover study versus placebo. Douleurs: Evaluation – Diagnostic – Traitement 6:151–159 (französisch)Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Musculoskeletal report: Pfizer stops work on esreboxetine for FM. http://www.mskreport.com/articles.cfm?articleID= 3293. Zugegriffen: 15. August 2011Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Nørregaard J, Volkmann H, Danneskiold-Samsøe B (1995) A randomized controlled trial of citalopram in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Pain 61:445–449PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Olin R, Klein R, Berg PA (1998) A randomised double-blind 16-week study of ritanserin in fibromyalgia syndrome: clinical outcome and analysis of autoantibodies to serotonin, gangliosides and phospholipids. Clin Rheumatol 17:89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Ozerbil O, Okudan N, Gokbel H, Levendoglu F (2006) Comparison of the effects of two antidepressants on exercise performance of the female patients with fibromyalgia. Clin Rheumatol 25:495–497 (Endpunktdarstellung nicht verwertbar)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Patkar AA, Masand PS, Krulewicz S et al (2007) A randomized, controlled, trial of controlled release paroxetine in fibromyalgia. Am J Med 120:448–454PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Pattrick M, Swannell A, Doherty M (1993) Chlormezanone in primary fibromyalgia syndrome: a double blind placebo controlled study. Br J Rheumatol 32:55–58PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Pfizer. Protocol No. A0081100: A 14 week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of pregabalin twice daily in patients with fibromyalgia. http://pdf.clinicalstudyresults.org/documents/company-study_4636_0.pdf. Zugegriffen: 31. März 2009Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Posner IA (1994) Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with intravenous lidocaine: a prospective, randomized pilot study. J Musculoskelet Pain 2:55–65Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Puls F, Agne C, Klein F et al (2011) Pathology of flupirtine-induced liver injury: a histological and clinical study of six cases. Virchows Arch 458:709–716PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Quijada-Carrera J, Valenzuela-Castaño A et al (1996) Comparison of tenoxicam and bromazepan in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Pain 65:221–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Quimby LG, Gratwick GM, Whitney CD (1989) A randomized trial of cyclobenzaprine for the treatment of fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol Suppl 19:140–143Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Raphael JH, Southall JL, Kitas GD (2003) Adverse effects of intravenous lignocaine therapy in fibromyalgia syndrome. Rheumatology (Oxford) 42:185–186Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Russell IJ, Kamin M, Bennett RM et al (2000) Efficacy of tramadol in treatment of pain in fibromyalgia. J Clin Rheumatol 6:250–257Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Russell IJ, Fletcher EM, Michalek JE et al (1991) Treatment of primary fibrositis/fibromyalgia syndrome with ibuprofen and alprazolam. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Arthritis Rheum 34:552–560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Russell IJ, Michalek JE, Kang YK, Richards AB (1999) Reduction of morning stiffness and improvement in physical function in fibromyalgia syndrome patients treated sublingually with low doses of human interferon-alpha. J Interferon Cytokine Res 19:961–968Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Russell IJ, Mease PJ, Smith TR et al (2008) Efficacy and safety of duloxetine for treatment of fibromyalgia in patients with or without major depressive disorder: Results from a 6-month, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trial. Pain 136:432–444PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Russell IJ, Perkins AT, Michalek JE et al (2009) Sodium oxybate relieves pain and improves function in fibromyalgia syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial. Arthritis Rheum 60:299–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sadreddini S, Molaeefard M, Noshad H et al (2008) Efficacy of Raloxifen in treatment of fibromyalgia in menopausal women. Eur J Intern Med 19:350–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Santandrea S, Montrone F, Sarzi-Puttini P et al (1993) A double-blind crossover study of two cyclobenzaprine regimens in primary fibromyalgia syndrome. J Int Med Res 21:74–80Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Scharf MB, Baumann M, Berkowitz DV (2003) The effects of sodium oxybate on clinical symptoms and sleep patterns in patients with fibromyalgia. J Rheumatol 30:1070–1074Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Scudds RA, McCain GA, Rollman GB, Harth M (1989) Improvements in pain responsiveness in patients with fibrositis after successful treatment with amitriptyline. J Rheumatol Suppl 19:98–103Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Sencan S, Karan A, Muslumanoglu L et al (2004) A study to compare the therapeutic efficacy of aerobic exercise and paroxetine in fibromyalgia syndrome. J Back Musculoskeletal Rehabil 17:57–61Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Skrabek RQ, Galimova L, Ethans K, Perry D (2008) Nabilone for the treatment of pain in fibromyalgia. J Pain 9:164–173Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Sommer C, Häuser W, Berliner M et al (2008) Medikamentöse Therapie des Fibromyalgiesyndroms. Schmerz 22:313–323PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sörensen J, Bengtsson A, Ahlner J et al (1997) Fibromyalgia – are there different mechanisms in the processing of pain? A double blind crossover comparison of analgesic drugs. J Rheumatol 24:1615–1621 (experimentelle Studie)Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Sörensen J, Bengtsson A, Bäckman E et al (1995) Pain analysis in patients with fibromyalgia. Effects of intravenous morphine, lidocaine, and ketamine. Scand J Rheumatol 24:360–365 (experimentelle Studie)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Späth M, Stratz T, Neeck G et al (2004) Efficacy and tolerability of intravenous tropisetron in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Scand J Rheumatol 33:267–270PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Stoll LA (2000) Fibromyalgia symptoms relieved by flupirtine: an open-label case series. Psychosomatics 41:371–372PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Targino RA, Imamura M, Kaziyama HH et al (2008) A randomized controlled trial of acupuncture added to usual treatment for fibromyalgia. J Rehabil Med 40:582–588 (Amitriptylin kombiniert mit multimodaler Therapie bzw. Akupunktur)Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Tjäderborn M, Jönsson AK, Ahlner J, Hägg S (2009) Tramadol dependence: a survey of spontaneously reported cases in Sweden. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 18:1192–1198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Ueberall MA, Mueller-Schwefe GH, Terhaag B (2011) Efficacy and tolerability of flupirtine in subacute/chronic musculoskeletal pain – results of a patient level, pooled re-analysis of randomized, double-blind, controlled trials. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 49:637–647PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Vaeroy H, Abrahamsen A, Forre O, Kass E (1989) Treatment of fibromyalgia (fibrositis syndrome): a parallel double blind trial with carisoprodol, paracetamol and caffeine (Somadril comp) versus placebo. Clin Rheumatol 8:245–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Vitton O, Gendreau M, Gendreau J et al (2004) A double-blind placebo-controlled trial of milnacipran in the treatment of fibromyalgia. Hum Psychopharmacol 19(Suppl 1):S27–35PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Vlainich R, Issy AM, Gerola LR, Sakata RK (2010) Effect of intravenous lidocaine on manifestations of fibromyalgia. Pain Pract 10:301–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Ware MA, Fitzcharles MA, Joseph L, Shir Y (2010) The effects of nabilone on sleep in fibromyalgia: results of a randomized controlled trial. Anesth Analg 110:604–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Ware MA, St Arnaud-Trempe E (2010) The abuse potential of the synthetic cannabinoid nabilone. Addiction 105:494–503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Wolfe F, Cathey MA, Hawley DJ (1994) A double-blind placebo controlled trial of fluoxetine in fibromyalgia. Scand J Rheumatol 23:255–259PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Wörz R (1991) Flupirtin bei chronischen myofasziellen Schmerzzuständen. Fortschr Med 109:158–160PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Yavuzer G, Küçükdeveci A, Araslı T, Elhan A (1998) Moclobemid treatment in primary fibromyalgia syndrome. Eur J Phys Med Rehabil 8:35–38 (Kombination mit Biofeedback)Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Yunus MB, Masi AT, Aldag JC (1989) Short term effects of ibuprofen in primary fibromyalgia syndrome: a double blind, placebo controlled trial. J Rheumatol 16:527–532Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Sommer
    • 1
  • W. Häuser
    • 2
  • R. Alten
    • 3
  • F. Petzke
    • 4
  • M. Späth
    • 5
  • T. Tölle
    • 6
  • N. Üçeyler
    • 1
  • A. Winkelmann
    • 7
  • E. Winter
    • 8
  • K.J. Bär
    • 9
  1. 1.Neurologische KlinikUniversitätsklinikum WürzburgWürzburgDeutschland
  2. 2.Innere Medizin 1Klinikum Saarbrücken gGmbHSaarbrückenDeutschland
  3. 3.Schlossparkklinik BerlinBerlinDeutschland
  4. 4.Schmerz-Tagesklinik und –AmbulanzUniversitätsmedizin Göttingen, Georg-August-Universität GöttingenGöttingenDeutschland
  5. 5.Rheumatologische PraxisMünchen-GräfelfingDeutschland
  6. 6.Klinik für NeurologieTechnische Universität MünchenMünchenDeutschland
  7. 7.Klinik und Poliklinik für Physikalische Medizin und RehabilitationKlinikum der Universität MünchenMünchenDeutschland
  8. 8.Klinik für Innere Medizin mit Schwerpunkt PsychosomatikCharité – Universitätsmedizin BerlinBerlinDeutschland
  9. 9.Klinik für Psychiatrie und PsychotherapieUniversitätsklinikum JenaJenaDeutschland

Personalised recommendations