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Der Schmerz

, Volume 20, Issue 2, pp 151–159 | Cite as

Alimentäre Triggerfaktoren bei Migräne und Kopfschmerz vom Spannungstyp

  • J. Holzhammer
  • C. Wöber
Übersichten

Zusammenfassung

Auf Basis eines Literaturüberblicks wird die Bedeutung alimentärer Triggerfaktoren bei Migräne und Kopfschmerz vom Spannungstyp (KST) kritisch diskutiert. Informationen beruhen überwiegend auf der subjektiven Einschätzung der Patienten. In kontrollierten Studien sind Alkoholkonsum und Koffeinentzug am besten als Triggerfaktoren von Kopfschmerzen belegt. Eingeschränkte Evidenz besteht für das Auslassen von Mahlzeiten. Als „neuer“, bislang kaum beachteter Triggerfaktor, verdient die Dehydrierung vermehrt Beachtung. Bei manchen Patienten wurde eine selektive Empfindlichkeit für Rotwein nachgewiesen, eine Kopfschmerztriggerung durch Schokolade darf ernsthaft bezweifelt werden, zur Bedeutung von Käse ist keine wissenschaftlich begründete Aussage möglich. Der experimentell gut belegten kopfschmerzauslösenden Wirkung von NO-Donatoren sowie parenteral verabreichtem Histamin stehen mangelnde Beweise dafür gegenüber, dass Histamin, Nitrite und Nitrate über die normale Nahrungsaufnahme Migräne oder KST auslösen. Ebenso wenig lässt sich aus den vorliegenden Daten auf eine solche Wirkung anderer biogener Amine sowie von Aspartam schließen. Natriumglutamat dürfte lediglich bei Zufuhr größerer Mengen auf nüchternem Magen zu Unverträglichkeitsreaktionen führen. Patienten mit Migräne und KST sollten über die begrenzte Bedeutung alimentärer Triggerfaktoren informiert und individuell beobachtete Unverträglichkeiten kritisch überprüft werden. Eindeutig bestätigte Trigger sollten vermieden werden. Allgemeine Diätempfehlungen lassen sich auf Basis des derzeitigen Wissensstands nicht begründen.

Schlüsselwörter

Migräne Kopfschmerz vom Spannungstyp (KST) Triggerfaktoren Nahrungsmittel Alkohol 

Alimentary trigger factors that provoke migraine and tension-type headache

Abstract

Based on a review of the literature the authors discuss the role of nutrition in the precipitation of migraine and tension-type headache (TTH). The available information relies largely on the subjective assessment of the patients. Controlled trials suggest that alcohol and caffeine withdrawal are the most important nutritional precipitating factors of migraine and TTH. In addition, there is some evidence that missing meals is also an important factor. Dehydration seems to deserve more attention. A selective sensitivity to red wine has been shown in some patients, the importance of chocolate has been doubted seriously, and scientific evidence for cheese as a precipitating factor is lacking. Despite a series of experimental studies demonstrating that NO donors such as nitroglycerin and parenteral histamine cause headache the role of histamine, nitrates, and nitrites in food remains unclear. Similarly, other biogenic amines and aspartame have not been proven to precipitate headache. Sodium glutamate causes adverse reactions including headache probably at large doses ingested on an empty stomach. Therefore, patients should be advised that food plays a limited role as a precipitating factor of migraine and TTH. Subjective sensitivity to certain foods should be examined critically, and proven precipitating factors should be avoided. General dietary restrictions have not been proven to be useful.

Keywords

Migraine Tension-type headache Precipitating factors Food Alcohol 

Notes

Interessenkonflikt:

Der korrespondierende Autor versichert, dass keine Verbindungen mit einer Firma, deren Produkt in dem Artikel genannt ist, oder einer Firma, die ein Konkurrenzprodukt vertreibt, bestehen.

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© Springer Medizin Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Universitäts-Klinik für NeurologieMedizinische Universität Wien
  2. 2.Universitäts-Klinik für NeurologieMedizinische UniversitätWien

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