Water and energy circulation characteristics and their impacts on water stress at the provincial level in China
- 105 Downloads
Water and energy circulate between provinces and sectors through products and services. The multi-scale input–output method can quantify the resources embodied in direct consumption, domestic trade and foreign trade and the resources in intermediate input and final consumption. In this study, this method is used to calculate the embodied water intensity and embodied energy intensity at the provincial level in China. The impacts of interprovincial water and energy transfers on provincial water stress were analyzed with reference to their water stress index. The results show that direct consumption is the main component of the embodied water intensity, with an average proportion of 52.21%. However, differences among provinces are significant, ranging from 14.82 to 80.11%. The embodied energy intensity is mainly reflected in domestic imports, with a national average of 61.01%. Domestic exports (3.69 × 1011 m3), urban household consumption (2.01 × 1011 m3), and gross fixed capital formation (1.49 × 1011 m3) share the largest proportion of final consumption, and they are also the main components in the final consumption of energy. Provincial water and energy transfers do not play major roles in relieving water stress in the net inflow areas but increase water stress in the net outflow areas. Provinces with high embodied water intensity and energy-induced water intensity tend to transfer more water to other provinces, while provinces with low intensity receive more supplies from other areas. Therefore, it is important to focus on improving the water use efficiency in provinces with active trade and high water and energy intensities, pay more attention to the demand side and avoid the continuous expansion of indirect consumption due to excessive restrictions on direct consumption.
KeywordsMulti-scale input–output method Embodied resource intensity Energy-induced water Water stress China
The article was mainly written by SH, HY and HW provided many valuable comments. TC collected the data and reviewed the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final version of the manuscript.
This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51879010, 51479003), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2018YFC0407900) and the 111 Project (Grant No. B18006).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
- Alcamo J, Henrichs T, Rösch T (2000) World water in 2025: global modeling and scenario analysis. In: Rijsberman F (ed) World water scenarios. Earthscan Publications, London, pp 243–281Google Scholar
- Beijing Water Authority (2013) China water resources bulletin 2012. China Municipal Water Affairs Bureau, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- BP (2013) Statistical review of world energy—June 2013. http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-worldenergy.html
- BP (2018) Statistical review of world energy—June 2018. http://www.bp.com/en/global/corporate/energy-economics/statistical-review-of-worldenergy.html
- Gerbens PW, Hoekstra AY, Van der Meer TH (2008) 2008 Proceedings 13th IWRA world water congress IWRAGoogle Scholar
- Li M, Singh VP, Fu Q, Liu D, Li T, Zhou Y (2019) Optimization of agricultural water–food–energy nexus in a random environment: an integrated modelling approach. Stoch Env Res Risk A. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00477-019-01672-4
- NBS (National Bureau of Statistics of China) (2010) China economic census yearbook 2008. China Statistics Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- NBS (National Bureau of Statistics of China) (2013a) China energy statistical yearbook 2013. China Statistics Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- NBS (National Bureau of Statistics of China) (2013b) China population and employment statistics yearbook 2013. China Statistics Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- NBS (National Bureau of Statistics of China) (2013c) China statistical yearbook 2013. China Statistics Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- NBS (National Bureau of Statistics of China) (2015) Input–output tables of China 2012. China Statistics Press, Beijing (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- Shao L (2014) Multi-scale input–output analysis of embodied water and its engineering applications. Peking University, Haidian (in Chinese) Google Scholar