Generation of replicates of the available data enables the researchers to solve different statistical problems, such as the estimation of standard errors, the inference of parameters or even the approximation of distribution functions. With this aim, Bootstrap approaches are suggested in the current work, specifically designed for their application to spatial data, as they take into account the dependence structure of the underlying random process. The key idea is to construct nonparametric distribution estimators, adapted to the spatial setting, which are distribution functions themselves, associated to discrete or continuous random variables. Then, the Bootstrap samples are obtained by drawing at random from the estimated distribution. Consistency of the suggested approaches will be proved by assuming stationarity from the random process or by relaxing the latter hypothesis to admit a deterministic trend. Numerical studies for simulated data and a real data set, obtained from environmental monitoring, are included to illustrate the application of the proposed Bootstrap methods.
Distribution estimation Resampling method Spatial data Stationarity Trend
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