A Kriging-based approach for locating a sampling site—in the assessment of air quality

Original Paper


Air quality assessment studies have either high sampling or analyses costs. In these studies the representation of a city by a single sampling point is still a serious problem, especially in the metropolitans of developing countries, because of the absence of equipments required for sampling at different locations. In this paper, the smoke data measurements of long years are used in the determination of the region for the representation of the city by drawing contours through the Kriging method. Then, the selection of the sampling site in this region is done on the basis of the criteria recommended by the EPA. By this way, the data taken from this sampling point are used for assessing the average city concentrations with lower sampling and analyses costs. This information is valuable for monitoring the air quality and defining environmental policies, although the local distribution and the extreme concentration values over the city are not measurable.


Sampling location Sampling point Kriging method Air monitoring 



We thank Professor Gürdal Tuncel for helpful criticism of the manuscript.


  1. Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Program Quality System Development (1998) Quality assurance handbook for air pollution measurement systems. United States Office of Air Quality EPA Environmental Protection Planning and Standards May Agency Research Triangle Park, NC 27711 Part I, Introduction 4/22/98 DraftGoogle Scholar
  2. Brown PJ, Le ND, Zidek JV (1994) Multivariate spatial interpolation and exposure to air pollutants. Can J Stat 22:489–509MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  3. Chilès JP, Delfiner P (1999) Geostatistics: modeling spatial uncertainty. Wiley, New York, p 696Google Scholar
  4. Cowell D, Apsimon H (1996) Estimating the cost of damage to buildings by acidifying atmospheric pollution in Europe. Atmos Environ 30(17):2959–2968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Deutsch CV, Journel AG (1998) GSLIB: geostatistical software library and user’s guide. Oxford University Press, New York, p 369Google Scholar
  6. Fenger J (1999) Urban air quality. Atmos Environ 33:4877–4900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Goldberg MS, Burnett RT, Valois MF, Flegel K, Bailar JC III, Brook J, Vincent R, Radon K (2003) Associations between ambient air pollution and mortality among persons with congestive heart failure. Environ Res 91:8–20CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hansen AC, Setle HK (2000) Air pollution and sick-leaves. Environ Resour Econ 16:31–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hudson G, Wackernagel H (1994) Mapping temperature using Kriging with external drift: theory and an example from Scotland. Int J Climatol 14:77–91Google Scholar
  10. Krige DG (1951) A statistical approach to some basic mine valuation problems on the Witwatersrand. J Chem Metall Min Soc S Afr December:119–139Google Scholar
  11. Matheron G (1971) The theory of regionalized variables and its applications. Les Cahiers du Centre de Morphologie Mathématique, Fascicule 5. Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Paris, Fontainebleau, p 211Google Scholar
  12. Mayer H (1999) Air pollution in cities. Atmos Environ 33:4029–4037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Odriozola JCA, Jimenez JD, Rubio JCM, Perez IJM, Ortiz MSP, Rodrigues PR (1998) Air pollution and mortality in Madrid, Spain: a time-series analysis. Arch Environ Health 71:543–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Parekh Pravin P, Khwaja Haider A, Khan Adil R, Naqvi Ronaq R, Shah A, Sajjad A, Khan K, Hussain G (2001) Ambient air quality of two metropolitan cities of Pakistan and its health implications. Atmos Environ 35:5971–5978CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Wackernagel H (2003) Multivariate geostatistics: an introduction with applications. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 387Google Scholar
  16. http://www.epa.gov. 40 CFR 58, Appendix Air Quality Assurance Requirements for State and Local Air Monitoring Stations (SLAMS), Ambient Air Quality Surveillance

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental Engineering, Engineering FacultyAtatürk UniversityErzurumTurkey

Personalised recommendations