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, Volume 33, Issue 6, pp 1711–1722 | Cite as

Time course of physiological responses in kiwifruit induced by bicarbonate

  • Nannan Wang
  • Xueyi Jiao
  • Tianli Guo
  • Cuiying Li
  • Zhande Liu
  • Fengwang MaEmail author
Original Article
  • 72 Downloads

Abstract

Key message

Ionic imbalance is one adaptive strategy of kiwifruit to bicarbonate, as indicated mainly by NH4+ accumulation and increased NH4+/NO3 in bicarbonate-treated roots as well as decreased NH4+/NO3 in bicarbonate-treated leaves.

Abstract

Bicarbonate-induced leaf chlorosis is frequently observed in kiwifruit orchards. A time-course experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of bicarbonate stress on the growth, root acidification, and organic acid and nutrient concentrations of kiwifruit plants treated for 7, 14, 21, 28, and 42 days in hydroponics. After 21 days of bicarbonate treatment, the kiwifruit vines exhibited leaf chlorosis, as indicated by decreased SPAD, chlorophyll a and b as well as carotenoid. Moreover, bicarbonate treatment induced NH4+ accumulation and NO3 reduction in roots from day 21 onward, thereby increasing the ratio of NH4+ to NO3 in roots, and the opposite was true for leaves that seemed to respond to bicarbonate earlier than roots but in an inconsistent manner. Before leaf chlorosis, bicarbonate imposition induced succinic acid accumulation and K reduction in roots from day 14 onward. However, the K concentration increased in bicarbonate-treated leaves from day 28 onward. Bicarbonate treatment also reduced P in all plant parts and Fe in leaves from day 21 onward, lowered Zn and enhanced Ca and Mg in roots from day 28 onward. In addition, bicarbonate treatment increased citric acid and ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity in roots at days 7 and 14, but decreased citric acid and H+ extrusion at day 28 and decreased FCR activity at day 42, respectively, indicating that root acidification is duration dependent. These results suggest that, except for succinic acid accumulation, ionic imbalance in the whole kiwifruit plants (particularly N form’s shift) might be an alternative strategy to adapt to bicarbonate stress.

Keywords

Bicarbonate stress Actinidia Ionic imbalance Nitrogen forms Succinic acid 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (31601710), the Affiliated Foundation for Shaanxi Postdoctors of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (K3380218082), and the Scientific Startup Foundation for Doctors of Northwest A and F University (Z109021611).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nannan Wang
    • 1
  • Xueyi Jiao
    • 1
  • Tianli Guo
    • 1
  • Cuiying Li
    • 1
  • Zhande Liu
    • 1
  • Fengwang Ma
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas/Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Apple, College of HorticultureNorthwest A and F UniversityYanglingChina

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