Seed desiccation tolerance/sensitivity of tree species from Brazilian biodiversity hotspots: considerations for conservation
- 47 Downloads
Seed banking is an essential tool for species conservation. However, two world’s biodiversity hotspots in a megadiverse tropical country have high percentage of short-lived seeds, requiring new strategies for preservation.
Information on seed storage behaviour is crucial for conservation, especially on highly impacted biomes. Thus, this study aimed to investigate seed desiccation tolerance/sensitivity in native tree species of two world’s biodiversity hotspots, Atlantic Forest and Cerrado. We assessed seed storage behaviour for 11 species. The tests were conducted immediately after seed collection at 12% and 8–5% of water content followed by 3 months of storage at − 18 °C. In addition, we retrieved data on the literature about water content after dispersal and storage behaviour of seeds for several tree species native from these hotspots. It comprised 79 species from 30 families. From this total, 47.4% of species produced orthodox seeds, 19.2% intermediate, and 33.3% recalcitrant seeds. All species from Lauraceae produced recalcitrant seeds. Most of studied species produce long-lived orthodox seeds; however, a high percentage of species produce sensitive seeds. Species producing short-lived seeds require non-conventional storage methods. Information on seed storage behaviour is fundamental for species management, especially in tropical areas, where the number of recalcitrant species is high. Thus, seed banking and other conservation strategies must be improved to avoid species loss. Technologies to improve storage of recalcitrant seeds are discussed.
KeywordsBiodiversity hotspots Desiccation tolerance Conservation Orthodox seeds Recalcitrant seeds Restoration
The authors would like to thank José Pedro for seed collection. LCV, RCM, and TMP thank PIBIC-FAPEMIG (Programa Institucional de Bolsas de Iniciação Científica da Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais) for their scholarship. TAAV thanks CAPES (Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior) and FAPEMIG (Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa de Minas Gerais) for the scholarship. ACD thanks the CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico) for the research productivity granted.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- BRASIL (1992) Normais Climatológicas do Brasil, período 1961–1990. Ministério da Agricultura e da Reforma Agrária, BrasíliaGoogle Scholar
- Cromarty AS, Ellis RH, Roberts EW (1982) The design of seed storage facilities for genetic conservation. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Davide AC, Faria JMR, Botelho SA (1995) Propagação de espécies florestais. CEMIG/UFLA/FAEPE, Belo HorizonteGoogle Scholar
- Davide AC, Carvalho LR, Carvalho MLM, Guimarães RM (2003) Classificação fisiológica de sementes de espécies florestais pertencentes à família Lauraceae quanto à capacidade de armazenamento. Cerne 9:29–35Google Scholar
- de Lima M Jr, Hong TD, Arruda YMBC, Mendes AMS, Ellis RH (2014) Classification of seed storage behaviour of 67 Amazonian tree species. Seed Sci Technol 43:63–92Google Scholar
- Ellis RH (1991) The longevity of seeds. HortScience 26:1119–1125Google Scholar
- Hong TD, Ellis RH (1996) A protocol to determine seed storage behaviour. Technical Bulletin 1, International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Hong TD, Ellis RH (1998) Contrasting seed storage behavior among different species of Meliaceae. Seed Sci Technol 26:77–95Google Scholar
- International Seed Testing Association (2004) International rules for seed testing. ISTA, OftringenGoogle Scholar
- Köppen W (1936) Das geographische system der climate. In: Köppen W, Geiger R (eds) Handbuch der klimatologie. GebruderBorntraeger, Berlin, pp 1–44Google Scholar
- Linington SH (2003) The design of seed banks. In: Smith RD, Dickie JB, Linington SH, Pritchard HW, Probert RJ (eds) Seed conservation: turning science into practice. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, pp 591–636Google Scholar
- R Development Core Team (2014) R: a language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna. http://www.R-project.org. Accessed July 2016
- Roberts EH (1973) Predicting the storage life of seeds. Seed Sci Technol 1:499–514Google Scholar
- Ruane J, Sonnino A (2006) The rule of Biotechnology and in exploring and protecting agricultural genetic resources. Food and agriculture organization of the United Nations, RomeGoogle Scholar
- Tabarelli M, Pinto LP, Silva JMC, Hirota MM, Bedê LC (2005) Desafios e oportunidades para a conservação da biodiversidade na Mata Atlântica brasileira. Megadiversidade 1:132–138Google Scholar
- Van Den Berg E, Oliveira-Filho AT (2000) Composição florística e estrutura fitossociológica de uma floresta ripária em Itutinga, MG, e comparação com outras áreas. Rev Bras Bot 23:231–253Google Scholar
- Von Teichman I, van Wyk AE (1994) Structural aspects and trends in the evolution of recalcitrant seeds in dicotyledons. Seed Sci Res 4:225–239Google Scholar