Dendrobiochemistry, a missing link to further understand carbon allocation during growth and decline of trees
The combination of dendrochronology with biochemical features such as nonstructural and structural carbohydrate dynamics may lead to more reliable views of how tree growth correlates with changes in natural environments.
Carbon is fixed in forests worldwide, where large pools are stored in the woody tissues of trees. After assimilation via photosynthesis, its products are transported through the phloem to support metabolism, storage, and the construction of new tissues. The metabolic dynamics of the assimilated carbon of trees have been studied by plant biochemistry and physiology approaches, mostly in young trees. On the other hand, dendrochronology rarely employs these approaches. It has been used mostly for growth quantification related to mature trees. Therefore, both fields of tree science could be merged to bring new inferences about how the internal plant metabolic processes correlate with tree growth in their inhabiting environments. Here we review the current knowledge about (1) nonstructural and structural carbohydrates of trees, as studied by plant biochemistry and physiology; and (2) tree-ring analysis as a proxy for tree growth studied by dendrochronology. We further discuss the current evidence available in the literature and the perspectives of merging these plant science fields here named dendrobiochemistry. We expect that this compilation can provide additional insights into some unresolved issues related to tree biochemistry, physiology, and dendrochronology and consequently improve current understanding of terrestrial carbon cycle.
KeywordsDendrochronology Monosaccharides Wood Nonstructural carbohydrates Starch Sucrose Cell wall Climate
- Amano E (2007) Pau-brasil, madeira e casca: formação, desenvolvimento e estrutura, Ph.D. thesis. University of São Paulo, São PauloGoogle Scholar
- Anderegg WRL, Matinez-Vilalta J, Cailleret M, Camarero JJ, Ewers BE, Galbraith D, Gessler A, Grote R, Huang C, Levick SR, Powell TL, Rowland L, Sánchez-Salguero R, Trostiuk V (2016) When a tree dies in the forest: scaling climate-driven tree mortality to ecosystem water and carbon fluxes. Ecosystems 19:1133–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Doughty CE, Matcalfe DB, Girardin CAJ, Amezquita FF, Durand L, Huasco WH, Silva-Espejo JE, Araujo-Murakami A, Costa MC, Costa ACL, Rocha W, Meir P, Galbraith D, Malhi Y (2015) Source and sink carbon dynamics and carbon allocation in the Amazon basin. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 29(5):645–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hoch G (2015) Carbon reserves as indicators for carbon limitation in trees. In: Lüttge U, Beyschlag W (eds) Progress in botany, vol 76. Springer, Cham, pp 321–346Google Scholar
- Körner C (2013) Growth controls photosynthesis—mostly. Nova Acta Leopold 114:273–283Google Scholar
- Lempereur M, Martin-StPaul NK, Damesin C, Joffre R, Ourcival J, Rocheteau A, Rambal S (2015) Grwoth is a better predictor of stem increment than carbon supply in a Mediterranean oak forest: implications for assessing forest productivity under climate change. New Phytol 207:579–590PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mahli Y (2011) The productivity, metabolism and carbon cycle of tropical forest vegetation. J Ecol 100:65–75Google Scholar
- Plavcová L, Jansen S (2015) The role of xylem parenchyma in the storage and utilization of nonstructural carbohydrates. In: Hacke U (ed) Functional and ecological xylem anatomy. Springer, Cham, pp 209–234Google Scholar
- Schädel C, Richter A, Blöchl A, Hoch G (2010) Hemicellulose concentration and composition in plant cell walls under extreme carbon source-sink imbalances. Physiol Palnt 139:241–255Google Scholar
- Schweingruber FH (1988) Tree rings. Basics and applications of dendrochronology. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar