, Volume 31, Issue 2, pp 687–704 | Cite as

Analysis of culm elongation in photoheterotrophic status of Dendrocalamus sinicus by comparative proteomics

  • Kai Cui
  • Haiying Wang
  • Caiyun He
  • Di Sun
  • Junpei Zhang
  • Shengxi LiaoEmail author
  • Yongzhong Cui
  • Li Li
Original Article


Key message

The differential expression of 36 proteins plays a central role in culm elongation during photoheterotrophic status, which was involved in complicated biochemical and molecular processes, including replication, transcription, translation, energy metabolism, central intermediary metabolism, and woody tissue photosynthesis.


Dendrocalamus sinicus is known as the largest bamboo species in the world, characterized by huge woody culms with rapid growth rate. During culm elongation, leaves are not yet shaped and culms are covered by nontransparent overlapping sheaths, forming a photoheterotrophic status in which culms rapidly complete their own growth. To elucidate this phenomenon, proteome analysis as well as enzyme activity were performed. In terms of the enzyme activity, we found significant differences among internodes for adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase, and starch branching enzyme, implying existence of a robust response of starch synthesis throughout culm elongation. At the protein level, 2-DE combined with MALDI–TOF/TOF MS analysis showed 36 differentially accumulated proteins among internodes. Of which, the largest group is the cluster for energy metabolism (27.78%), followed by central intermediary metabolism (22.22%), which suggests that carbohydrate metabolism dominates the process of culm elongation. Especially, four proteins related to the glycolysis pathway were differentially expressed. In addition, a protochlorophyllide reductase associated with chlorophyllide synthesis was down-regulated from basal to top internodes. This implies that culms belong to photosynthetic tissue and woody tissue photosynthesis is involved in the culm elongation. In addition, malate dehydrogenase related to TCA cycle was up-regulated from tender to mature tissues, which indicates that it plays a vital role in energy generation. An inconsistency between the transcript and protein level was found, suggesting that post-transcriptional events are involved in the culm elongation. These results are helpful to disclose the multiple mechanism of culm elongation of D. sinicus.


Culm elongation Proteome Gene expression Starch biosynthesis 



This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31300501), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Nonprofit Research Institution of CAF (Grant No. CAFYBB2014QB020 and riricaf2013002M), and the China Scholarship Council (201503270020).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

468_2016_1500_MOESM1_ESM.tif (537 kb)
Figure S1. Data fitting of molecular weight and isoelectric point of identified proteins (TIFF 537 kb)
468_2016_1500_MOESM2_ESM.doc (99 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 99 kb)
468_2016_1500_MOESM3_ESM.docx (1.9 mb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOCX 1961 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kai Cui
    • 1
  • Haiying Wang
    • 1
  • Caiyun He
    • 2
  • Di Sun
    • 3
  • Junpei Zhang
    • 2
  • Shengxi Liao
    • 1
    Email author
  • Yongzhong Cui
    • 1
  • Li Li
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Institute of Resources InsectsChinese Academy of ForestryKunmingPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Research Institute of ForestryChinese Academy of ForestryBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.Institute for Plant Genomics and BiotechnologyTexas A&M UniversityCollege StationUSA

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