Analysis of culm elongation in photoheterotrophic status of Dendrocalamus sinicus by comparative proteomics
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The differential expression of 36 proteins plays a central role in culm elongation during photoheterotrophic status, which was involved in complicated biochemical and molecular processes, including replication, transcription, translation, energy metabolism, central intermediary metabolism, and woody tissue photosynthesis.
Dendrocalamus sinicus is known as the largest bamboo species in the world, characterized by huge woody culms with rapid growth rate. During culm elongation, leaves are not yet shaped and culms are covered by nontransparent overlapping sheaths, forming a photoheterotrophic status in which culms rapidly complete their own growth. To elucidate this phenomenon, proteome analysis as well as enzyme activity were performed. In terms of the enzyme activity, we found significant differences among internodes for adenosine diphosphoglucose pyrophosphorylase, starch synthase, and starch branching enzyme, implying existence of a robust response of starch synthesis throughout culm elongation. At the protein level, 2-DE combined with MALDI–TOF/TOF MS analysis showed 36 differentially accumulated proteins among internodes. Of which, the largest group is the cluster for energy metabolism (27.78%), followed by central intermediary metabolism (22.22%), which suggests that carbohydrate metabolism dominates the process of culm elongation. Especially, four proteins related to the glycolysis pathway were differentially expressed. In addition, a protochlorophyllide reductase associated with chlorophyllide synthesis was down-regulated from basal to top internodes. This implies that culms belong to photosynthetic tissue and woody tissue photosynthesis is involved in the culm elongation. In addition, malate dehydrogenase related to TCA cycle was up-regulated from tender to mature tissues, which indicates that it plays a vital role in energy generation. An inconsistency between the transcript and protein level was found, suggesting that post-transcriptional events are involved in the culm elongation. These results are helpful to disclose the multiple mechanism of culm elongation of D. sinicus.
KeywordsCulm elongation Proteome Gene expression Starch biosynthesis
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31300501), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Nonprofit Research Institution of CAF (Grant No. CAFYBB2014QB020 and riricaf2013002M), and the China Scholarship Council (201503270020).
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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