, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 1021–1032 | Cite as

Adventitious rooting of conifers: influence of biological factors

  • Maria Amely ZavattieriEmail author
  • Carla Ragonezi
  • Krystyna Klimaszewska


Vegetative propagation of superior conifer trees can be achieved, e.g., through rooted cuttings or rooted microshoots, the latter predominantly through in vitro tissue culture. Both techniques are used to achieve rapid multiplication of trees with favorable genetic combinations and to capture a large proportion of the genetic diversity in a single generation cycle. However, adventitious rooting of shoots (cuttings) is often not efficient due to various problems, such as scarcity of roots and cessation of their growth, both of which limit the application of vegetative propagation in some conifer species. Many factors are involved in the adventitious rooting of shoots, including physical and chemical ones, such as plant growth regulators, carbohydrates, light quality, temperature and rooting substrates, or media [reviewed by Ragonezi et al. (Trees 24(6):975–992, 2010)]. The focus of this review is on biological factors, such as inoculations with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria and other endophytes, and mycorrhizal fungi, which were found to stimulate adventitious rooting. These microorganisms could contribute not only to adventitious root development but also to help in protecting conifer plants against pathogenic microorganisms, facilitate acclimation and transplanting, and contribute to more sustainable, chemical-free forests.


Biotization Mycorrhization Plant-growth promoting bacteria Gymnosperms 



Binucleate Rhizoctonia


Deoxyribonucleic acid


Ectomycorrhizal fungi or Ectomycorrhizas


Ericoid mycorrhizal fungi; Ericoid mycorrhizas


Gibberellic acid or Gibberellin A3


Indole-3-acetic acid


Indole-3-butyric acid






Mycorrhization helper bacteria




Murashige and Skoog (1962) culture medium


1-Naphthaleneacetic acid


Plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria


Plant growth regulators


Root-stimulating bacteria


Root-inducing plasmid


Transfer DNA


Tumor-inducing plasmid


2,3,5-Triiodobenzoic acid


Vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizas



Ms. Pamela Cheers, Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service is thanked for English editing.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ICT-Instituto das Ciências da TerraUniversidade de ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal
  2. 2.Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri-UFVJMDiamantinaBrazil
  3. 3.Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Laurentian Forestry CenterQuebecCanada

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