Climate variability, tree increment patterns and ENSO-related carbon sequestration reduction of the tropical dry forest species Loxopterygium huasango of Southern Ecuador
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Striking hydro-climatic differences of 2 years (wet; dry) dramatically control the increment pattern of L. huasango in varying extent, even causing a “growth collapse” during the La Niña drought 2010/2011.
We present the first multi-year long time series of local climate data in the seasonally dry tropical forest in Southern Ecuador and related growth dynamics of Loxopterygium huasango, a deciduous tree species. Local climate was investigated by installing an automatically weather station in 2007 and the daily tree growth variability was measured with high-resolution point dendrometers. The climatic impact on growth behaviour was evaluated. Hydro-climatic variables, like precipitation and relative humidity, were the most important factors for controlling tree growth. Changes in rainwater input affected radial increment rates and daily amplitudes of stem diameter variations within the study period from 2009 to 2013. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related variations of tropical Pacific Ocean sea surface temperatures influenced the trees’ increment rates. Average radial increments showed high inter-annual (up to 7.89 mm) and inter-individual (up to 3.88 mm) variations. Daily amplitudes of stem diameter variations differed strongly between the two extreme years 2009 (wet) and 2011 (dry). Contrary to 2009, the La Niña drought in 2011 caused a rapid reduction of the daily amplitudes, indicating a total cessation (‘growth collapse’) of stem increment under ENSO-related drought conditions and demonstrating the high impact of climatic extreme events on carbon sequestration of the dry tropical forest ecosystem.
KeywordsClimate variability Dendroecology Dendrometer Ecuador La Niña drought Seasonally dry tropical forest
SSp and FV acknowledge Oswaldo Ganzhi and Volker Raffelsbauer for field work support. SSp and FV also thank Cathrin Meinardus for constructive and fruitful discussions. We also thank Stephan Adler for preparing the map. This study was supported by the German Research Foundation (DFG) by funding the project BR 1895/14 (FOR 816) and BR 1895/23 (PAK 823). DP acknowledges support by the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD). We also thank Naturaleza y Cultura Internacional (NCI, Loja, Ecuador) for their help in accessing the Laipuna Nature Reserve. The authors would like to thank the reviewers for their invaluable suggestions.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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