Aluminum effect on starch, soluble sugar, and phytohormone in roots of Quercus serrata Thunb. seedlings
Glucose was a key substance as an energy source in the root growth promotion by Al, and ABA may relate to metabolism involved with its process.
Generally, excess aluminum (Al) ions in soil solution are toxic to many cultivated plant species, but beneficial effects of Al for plant growth have been reported. Previously, we reported stimulation of root growth and nitrate reductase (NR) activity by Al. In this study, we focused on sugars, such as sucrose, glucose, and fructose, as energy sources and also signaling substances to regulate root growth. To understand the mechanism of root growth stimulation by Al, we investigated the change in concentration of sugars and phytohormones, and the activity of NR in roots using Quercus serrata seedlings. Ten-week-old Q. serrata seedlings were hydroponically cultured with nutrient solution containing 2.5 mM Al (pH 4.0) or 3.25 mM calcium (Ca) (pH 4.0) for 3 and 15 days. The growth of first lateral root and NR activity was stimulated for 3 and 15 days of Al treatment. The concentration of starch and sucrose decreased, while the concentration of glucose increased in the Al-treated roots. The concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) in Al-treated roots increased gradually throughout the experiment. From the present study, the mechanism of root growth promotion by Al involves a complex signaling network. We suggest that glucose is a key substance as an energy source and a signaling substance to promote root growth induced by Al and ABA may relate to nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) metabolism involved with the signaling network to promote root growth induced by Al.
KeywordsSucrose Glucose Abscisic acid Aluminum Quercus serrata
We thank Dr Kunio Yamada (Chubu University), Dr Katsuhiro Shiratake and Kayoko Miyashita (Nagoya University), and Dr Takafumi Tezuka for valuable advice and support to analysis of carbohydrates.
- Abdalla MM (2008) Physiological aspects of aluminium toxicity on some metabolic and hormonal contents of Hordum Vulgare seedlings. Aust J Basic Appl Sci 2(3):549–560Google Scholar
- Bhatia S, Singh R (2000) Calcium-mediated conversion of sucrose to starch in relation to the activities of amylases and sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in sorghum grains raised through liquid culture. Indian J Biochem Bio 37(2):135–139Google Scholar
- Cheng WH, Endo A, Zhou L, Penney J, Chen HC, Arroyo A, Leon P, Nambara E, Asami T, Seo M, Koshiba T, Sheen J (2002) A unique short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase in Arabidopsis glucose signaling and abscisic acid biosynthesis and functions. Plant Cell 14:2723–2743. doi: 10.1105/tpc.006494 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Kojima M, Kamada NT, Komatsu H, Takei K, Kuroha T, Mizutani M, Ashikari M, Ueguchi TM, Matsuoka M, Suzuki K, Sakakibara H (2009) Highly sensitive and high-throughput analysis of plant hormones using MS-probe modification and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: an application for hormone profiling in Oryza sativa. Plant Cell Physiol 50(7):1201–1214. doi: 10.1093/pcp/pcp057 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Liu B, Sukalovic VH (1998) Effect of aluminum on growth and nitrate reductase activities of maize seelings. Acta Phytophysiol Sin 24:347–353Google Scholar
- Oda A, Yamamoto F (2002) Effects of aluminum on growth and biomass allocation of hydroponically cultured Quercus acutissima, Cinnamomum comphora and Eucalyptus viminalis seedlings. J Tree Health 6:99–103Google Scholar
- Okazaki M, Matui K (1993) Environmental soil science. Aasakura Pub Co Ltd, TokyoGoogle Scholar
- Rolland F, Moore B, Sheen J (2002) Sugar sensing and signaling in plants. Plant Cell S185–S205. doi: 10.1105/tpc.010455
- Tomioka R, Takenaka C, Maeshima M, Tezuka T, Kojima M, Sakakibara H (2012) Stimulation of root growth induced by aluminum in Quercus serrata Thunb is related to activity of nitrate reductase and maintenance of IAA concentration in roots. Am J Plant Sci 3:1619–1624. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.311196 CrossRefGoogle Scholar